Utah entra na União

Utah entra na União


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Seis anos após Wilford Woodruff, presidente da Igreja Mórmon, emitiu seu Manifesto reformando a vida política, religiosa e econômica em Utah, o território foi admitido na União como o 45º estado.

Em 1823, Joseph Smith, nascido em Vermont, afirmou que um anjo chamado Morôni o visitou e lhe falou sobre um antigo texto hebraico que estava perdido há 1.500 anos. O texto sagrado, supostamente gravado em placas de ouro por um historiador nativo americano no século IV, relatou a história de povos judeus que viveram na América nos tempos antigos. Em 1827, Smith recebeu as placas de ouro de Morôni e, nos 85 dias seguintes, Smith ditou uma tradução para o inglês desse texto para sua esposa e outros escribas. Em 1830, O Livro de Mórmon foi publicado. No mesmo ano, Smith fundou a Igreja de Cristo, mais tarde conhecida como Igreja de Jesus Cristo dos Santos dos Últimos Dias, em Fayette, Nova York.

A religião ganhou convertidos rapidamente e Smith estabeleceu comunidades mórmons em Ohio, Missouri e Illinois. No entanto, a seita cristã também foi fortemente criticada por suas práticas pouco ortodoxas e, em 27 de junho de 1844, Smith e seu irmão foram assassinados em uma cela por uma turba anti-mórmon em Carthage, Illinois. Dois anos depois, o sucessor de Smith, Brigham Young, liderou um êxodo de mórmons perseguidos de Nauvoo, Illinois, ao longo das trilhas de carroças do oeste em busca de liberdade religiosa e política.

Em julho de 1847, os 148 pioneiros mórmons chegaram ao Vale do Grande Lago Salgado, em Utah. Ao ver o vale, Young declarou: “Este é o lugar”, e os pioneiros começaram os preparativos para as dezenas de milhares de migrantes Mórmons que viriam a seguir.

Em 1850, o Presidente Millard Fillmore nomeou Young o primeiro governador do território de Utah, e o território gozou de relativa autonomia por vários anos. As relações ficaram tensas, no entanto, quando chegaram a Washington relatórios de que os líderes mórmons estavam desrespeitando a lei federal e sancionando publicamente a prática da poligamia. Em 1857, o presidente James Buchanan removeu Young, um polígamo com mais de 20 esposas, de sua posição como governador e enviou tropas do exército dos EUA para Utah para estabelecer a autoridade federal. As tensões entre o território de Utah e o governo federal continuaram até que Wilford Woodruff, o presidente da Igreja Mórmon, emitiu seu Manifesto em 1890, renunciando à prática tradicional da poligamia e reduzindo o domínio da igreja sobre as comunidades de Utah. Seis anos depois, o território de Utah recebeu o título de Estado.


Sítio Histórico Nacional Golden Spike

Em 10 de maio de 1869, do Promontory Summit, a noroeste de Ogden, Utah, uma única palavra telegrafada, & # 8220done & # 8221, sinalizou para a nação a conclusão da primeira ferrovia transcontinental. Tripulações de ferrovias da Union Pacific, de 8.000 a 10.000 imigrantes irlandeses, alemães e italianos, haviam avançado para o oeste de Omaha, Nebraska. Em Promontory, eles encontraram equipes do Pacífico Central, que incluíam mais de 10.000 trabalhadores chineses, que haviam construído a linha a leste de Sacramento, Califórnia.

Na verdade, as equipes de construção construíram vários quilômetros de trilhos paralelos uns aos outros. A legislação federal que regulamenta o projeto transcontinental não previa a junção dos trilhos. Nada impedia que cada linha continuasse crescendo e, assim, aumentasse os subsídios que poderia receber do governo federal. Portanto, o Congresso agiu para definir o ponto de encontro no Promontório.

A cerimônia daquele dia para marcar a conclusão do último conjunto de amarras e pregos foi um tanto desorganizada. A multidão pressionou tão perto dos motores que os repórteres não puderam ver ou ouvir muito do que realmente foi dito, o que explica muitas discrepâncias nos vários relatos.

Union Pacific Railroad em construção, Promontory Point, 10 de maio de 1869

Os motores Union Pacific & # 8217s No. 119 e Central Pacific & # 8217s & # 8220Jupiter & # 8221 alinhados frente a frente nos trilhos, separados apenas pela largura de um trilho. Leland Stanford, um dos & # 8220Big Four & # 8221 do Pacífico Central, trouxe quatro pontas cerimoniais. O famoso & # 8220Golden Spike & # 8221 foi apresentado por David Hewes, um magnata da construção de São Francisco. Estava gravado com os nomes dos diretores do Pacífico Central, sentimentos especiais apropriados para a ocasião e, na cabeça, a notação & # 8220 the Last Spike. & # 8221 Um segundo pico de ouro foi apresentado pelo San Francisco Boletim de Notícias. Um cravo de prata foi a contribuição de Nevada & # 8217, e um cravo de ferro, prata e ouro representou o Arizona. Essas pontas foram colocadas em uma gravata de laurelwood pré-furada durante a cerimônia. Nenhum pico representava Utah, e os líderes da Igreja Mórmon se destacavam por sua ausência.

Às 12h47 o último espigão real & # 8212um espigão de ferro comum & # 8212 foi conduzido para um empate regular. Tanto o espigão quanto o trenó foram instalados para enviar o som dos golpes por cima do cabo para a nação. No entanto, Stanford e Thomas Durant, da Union Pacific, perderam o pico. Ainda assim, o operador de telégrafo Shilling clicou três pontos sobre o fio: & # 8220 concluído. & # 8221 Enquanto isso, com um trenó sem fio, os supervisores de construção James H. Strobridge e Samuel R. Reed se revezaram para dirigir o último prego.

Por várias semanas, Promontory continuou a ser uma cidade de tendas e barracos rústicos. Os especuladores de terras, pequenos mercadores, donos de bares, jogadores e prostitutas que seguiram essas cidades de tendas permaneceram apenas enquanto houvesse trabalhadores para atrair. Mas, ao contrário de muitos desses acampamentos & # 8220hell sobre rodas & # 8221, Promontório nunca se tornou o local de uma cidade permanente.

Em 1901, a máquina a vapor do Pacífico Central & # 8220Jupiter & # 8221 foi sucateada para o ferro. O Union Pacific & # 8217s No. 119 foi descartado dois anos depois. A construção de 1903 & # 821104 do corte de Lucin desviou a maior parte do tráfego da Promontory & # 8217s & # 8220Old Line. & # 8221 O último laço de louro foi destruído no terremoto de 1906 em San Francisco. Uma das amarras de suporte tinha sido usada como viga do telhado em um celeiro que Edgar Stone, o bombeiro do Júpiter, havia construído em North Ogden. Apenas o & # 8220Last Spike & # 8221 permaneceu & # 8212ensconcedido na Universidade de Stanford.

Em 1942, os trilhos antigos ao longo da linha Promontory Summit de 123 milhas foram recuperados para esforços de guerra em cerimônias que marcaram a & # 8220Undriving of the Golden Spike. & # 8221 Caçadores de artefatos escolheram a área em busca de gravatas e materiais. O evento da conclusão da ferrovia transcontinental, que alguns historiadores compararam em importância à Declaração da Independência, pareceu desaparecer da consciência pública.

No entanto, um marcador memorial do & # 8220Last Spike & # 8221 foi colocado ao longo do

Cópia de uma antiga xilogravura mostrando a junção da primeira linha ferroviária transcontinental em Promontory, Utah, 10 de maio de 1869. Central Pacific & # 8217s & # 8220Jupiter & # 8221 à esquerda e UP & # 8217s No. 119. A xilogravura apareceu em Crofutt & # 8217s & # 8220New Overland Tourist Guide Book & # 8221 1878-79.

direito de passagem em 1943 e nos anos após a Segunda Guerra Mundial, os residentes locais começaram a marcar o evento. Na reconstituição de 1948 da condução do último pico, locomotivas em miniatura foram fornecidas pela Southern Pacific. Em 1951, um monumento ao evento foi dedicado e colocado em frente à Union Station em Ogden. Em 1957, o Congresso estabeleceu uma área de sete acres como o Golden Spike National Historic Site. Bernice Gibbs Anderson de Corinne organizou a National Golden Spike Society em 1959 para promover o site. Em 1965, o Congresso ampliou o local para abranger 2.176 acres e ser administrado pelo Serviço de Parques Nacionais. Naquele mesmo ano, o condado de Weber estendeu a rodovia da 12th Street ao Promontory, o que facilitou o acesso ao local.

O entusiasmo para marcar o centenário da ferrovia transcontinental cresceu durante os anos seguintes. Foram feitas buscas por motores antigos, uma comissão para planejar a reconstituição foi organizada, o Golden Spike Monument foi movido 150 pés para o noroeste e o National Park Service iniciou a reconstrução dos dois níveis da ferrovia, as linhas de trilhos e dois telégrafos linhas, bem como interruptores e conexões de tapume.

Este é o puxão da haste de ouro por L. P. Hopkins, à esquerda, superintendente da divisão, Southern Pacific Railroad, Herbert B. Maw, governador de Utah e E. C. Schmidt, assistente do presidente da Union Pacific Railroad. Imagem digital © 2008 Utah State Historical Society.

Os motores usados ​​nas cerimônias de 1969 foram modificados para se parecerem com os originais. De 1970 a 1980, a reconstituição anual usou duas locomotivas antigas emprestadas de Nevada. Mas, em 1980, com água da Liberty Island em New York Harbor e Fort Point em San Francisco Bay, duas réplicas de navios a vapor construídos por Chadwell O & # 8217Connor Engineering Laboratories de Costa Mesa, Califórnia, foram dedicados. Construída com US $ 1,5 milhão em fundos federais, essas foram as primeiras máquinas a vapor construídas nos Estados Unidos em 25 anos. Eles agora funcionam diariamente de maio a agosto e do Natal ao Ano Novo & # 8217s dia. O pessoal do Serviço de Parques do Golden Spike Information Center, também dedicado em 1980, pode direcionar os visitantes para passeios a pé e de carro ao longo das antigas rampas, bem como para fotos e outras exposições que celebram a ferrovia transcontinental.


Escravidão em Utah

Embora a prática nunca tenha se difundido, alguns pioneiros de Utah mantiveram escravos afro-americanos até 1862, quando o Congresso aboliu a escravidão nos territórios. Três escravos, Green Flake, Hark Lay e Oscar Crosby, vieram para o oeste com a primeira companhia pioneira em 1847, e seus nomes aparecem em uma placa no Monumento Brigham Young, no centro de Salt Lake City. O Censo de 1850 relatou 26 escravos negros em Utah e o Censo de 1860 29 alguns questionaram esses números.

A escravidão era legal em Utah como resultado do Compromisso de 1850, que trouxe a Califórnia para a União como um estado livre, permitindo aos territórios de Utah e Novo México a opção de decidir a questão por & # 8220 soberania popular. & # 8221 Alguns pioneiros mórmons de o Sul trouxe escravos afro-americanos com eles quando migraram para o oeste. Alguns libertaram seus escravos em Utah, outros que foram para a Califórnia tiveram que emancipá-los lá.

A igreja Mórmon não tinha doutrina oficial a favor ou contra a posse de escravos, e os líderes eram ambivalentes. Em 1836, Joseph Smith escreveu que os senhores deveriam tratar os escravos com humanidade e que os escravos deviam obediência a seus donos. Durante sua campanha presidencial em 1844, no entanto, ele defendeu a abolição. Brigham Young apoiou tacitamente a posse de escravos, declarando que embora Utah não fosse adequado para a escravidão, a prática foi ordenada por Deus. Em 1851, o apóstolo Orson Hyde disse que a igreja não interferiria nas relações entre senhor e escravo.

A legislatura sancionou formalmente a posse de escravos em 1852, mas advertiu contra o tratamento desumano e estipulou que os escravos poderiam ser declarados livres se seus senhores abusassem deles. Os registros documentam a venda de vários escravos em Utah.

Os afro-americanos não foram os únicos escravos comprados e vendidos no território. A chegada dos pioneiros em 1847 interrompeu um próspero comércio de escravos nativos americanos. Os índios baseados em Utah, principalmente o bando de Utes Chief Walkar & # 8217s, serviram como procuradores e intermediários em uma rede de comércio de escravos que se estendia de Santa Fé, Novo México, a Los Angeles, Califórnia, e envolvia espanhóis, mexicanos, americanos e nativos Comerciantes americanos.

Os colonizadores espanhóis do Caribe e da América Central e do Sul dependiam muito do trabalho escravo nativo em suas minas, campos e residências. Em seus assentamentos ao longo do alto Rio Grande, no Novo México, e em suas explorações ao norte, os espanhóis fizeram contato com muitos povos nativos, incluindo os falantes de Shoshonean de Utah. Os espanhóis trouxeram cavalos que os Utes, como os Sioux nas planícies do norte, rapidamente adotaram e usaram para estabelecer o domínio sobre as tribos vizinhas. Os espanhóis e, mais tarde, os mexicanos, queriam escravos nativos americanos como empregados domésticos e trabalhadores do campo e da fazenda, e os utes ajudaram a obtê-los.

Os mexicanos e utes geralmente se alimentavam dos povos Paiute mais fracos, capturando mulheres e crianças em ataques ou trocando cavalos para os Paiutes por cativos. Os Navajos também participaram, às vezes invadindo os Utes em busca de escravos. O comércio de escravos indígenas foi proibido no Novo México em 1812 e na Califórnia em 1824 porque as autoridades temiam que a prática provocasse uma guerra intertribal, mas a fiscalização frouxa e os altos lucros o mantiveram funcionando ao longo da primeira metade do século. Em seu auge nas décadas de 1830 e 40, os comerciantes mexicanos viajavam regularmente pela Antiga Trilha Espanhola, trocando armas, cavalos e bugigangas para escravos nativos americanos e vendendo os cativos no final da trilha & # 8217s. Mulheres e meninas, apreciadas como empregadas domésticas, traziam os preços mais altos & # 8211 às vezes chegavam a US $ 200.

Em novembro de 1851, oito mexicanos liderados por Pedro Leon foram presos por tentarem vender escravos indígenas em Néfi. Quando o governador Brigham Young chegou para confrontar os homens, eles exibiram uma licença oficial de comércio assinada pelo governador do Novo México, James Calhoun. Young negou a validade da licença e recusou-se a conceder-lhes outra. Os homens foram julgados por um juiz de paz em Manti e, em seguida, levados perante o juiz Zerubbabel Snow, do Primeiro Tribunal Distrital de Salt Lake City. Os comerciantes alegaram que os índios haviam roubado e comido alguns de seus cavalos e que, quando a restituição foi exigida, os paiutes lhes deram quatro meninas e cinco meninos como pagamento. O tribunal multou os comerciantes em US $ 50 cada e os deixou partir para o Novo México.

Ironicamente, em uma tentativa de interromper o comércio de escravos da Índia, o governador Young pediu ao Legislativo em 1852 para aprovar uma lei que permitisse ao possuidor branco de um prisioneiro indiano comparecer perante os selecionadores locais ou o juiz de sucessões do condado e, se julgado uma pessoa adequada , e devidamente qualificado para criar ou reter e educar o referido prisioneiro, criança ou mulher índio, & # 8221 ele poderia considerar o índio vinculado a um contrato que não excedesse 20 anos. As crianças tiveram que ser mandadas para a escola por períodos determinados.

O ato teve o efeito indesejado de encorajar o comércio de escravos. Comerciantes ute trouxeram crianças para os assentamentos mórmons e, segundo consta, ameaçaram matá-las se não fossem compradas. Em 1853, Young alertou todos os traficantes de escravos de Utah e mobilizou a milícia territorial para fazer cumprir a proibição. Os Utes, zangados com a interrupção do comércio, bem como com a invasão branca em seu território, reagiram com violência. Um incidente na cabana de James Ivie em 17 de julho de 1853, desencadeou a chamada Guerra Walker, que interrompeu os assentamentos centrais de Utah. Com o fim da guerra em 1854 e a morte do chefe Walkar & # 8217s logo em seguida, o comércio de escravos nativos americanos foi em grande parte subjugado.

Fontes: Ronald G. Coleman, & # 8220Blacks in Utah History: An Unknown Legacy, & # 8221 in Os povos de Utah, ed. Helen Z. Papanikolas (Salt Lake City: Utah State Historical Society, 1976) Dennis L. Lythgoe, & # 8220Negro Slavery in Utah & # 8221 Utah Historical Quarterly 39 (1971) Lynn R. Bailey, Comércio de escravos na Índia no sudoeste (Los Angeles: Westernlore Press, 1966) Carling e A. Arline Malouf, & # 8220The Effects of Spanish Slavery on the Indians of the Intermountain West, & # 8221 Southwestern Journal of Anthropology l (outono de 1945) Daniel W. Jones, Quarenta anos entre os índios (Salt Lake City, 1890) Kate B. Carter, comp., Escravidão indiana do oeste (Salt Lake City, 1938).


A Guerra Civil em Utah

O governador Alfred Cumming deixou Utah em silêncio em 17 de maio de 1861. Oficialmente, Cumming estava de licença, mas os cidadãos de Utah sabiam que sua partida apressada significava que ele não tinha a intenção de retornar. O general Albert Sidney Johnston, outra figura importante no território, também deixou a área no mesmo período. As ações de ambos os homens foram resultado de eventos na Carolina do Sul em 12 de abril de 1861, quando o Exército Confederado atacou a guarnição federal em Fort Sumter. Este incidente desencadeou uma das maiores tragédias da história dos Estados Unidos, a Guerra Civil Americana (1861-65). Tanto Cumming quanto Johnston eram sulistas e escolheram retornar ao sul quando a nação começou a se dividir.

Muitos mórmons em Utah viram os eventos no leste como o cumprimento de declarações feitas por seu profeta / fundador Joseph Smith quase trinta anos antes: & # 8220Certamente, assim diz o Senhor a respeito das guerras que em breve acontecerão, começando com a rebelião de Carolina do Sul. & # 8221 Em uma declaração posterior feita em 1843, Smith acrescentou: & # 8220O início das dificuldades que causarão muito derramamento de sangue antes da vinda do Filho do Homem será na Carolina do Sul. Provavelmente pode surgir da questão do escravo. & # 8221

Mesmo que os santos dos últimos dias acreditassem que a dissolução da União justificasse as declarações de seus profetas, eles também tinham uma profunda consideração e crença na natureza divina da Constituição dos Estados Unidos. Essas emoções potencialmente conflitantes criaram uma atmosfera única em Utah.

Visto que alguns santos interpretaram as palavras de Smith como significando que a Segunda Vinda de Cristo estava próxima, eles também tinham emoções confusas em relação à Guerra Civil. Além disso, eles ainda estavam inseguros após a Guerra de Utah. Embora estivessem interessados ​​em questões de autogoverno e direitos do estado, é evidente que o povo de Utah nunca considerou seriamente apoiar a Confederação. De fato, em várias ocasiões, eles afirmaram sua lealdade ao Sindicato. Embora a maioria suspeitasse das políticas de Lincoln & # 8217s durante os primeiros dias de sua presidência, os santos mudaram de atitude, especialmente depois que uma declaração favorável feita por Lincoln sobre eles ganhou circulação geral em Utah.

O presidente Abraham Lincoln, foi relatado, disse que quando ele era um menino havia muita madeira a ser retirada de sua fazenda. Às vezes, ele chegava a uma tora que era & # 8220muito difícil de rachar, muito úmida para queimar e muito pesada para mover & # 8221, então ele a vasculhava. Isso, Lincoln argumentou, era exatamente o que ele planejava fazer com os mórmons em Utah. & # 8220Você volte e diga a Brigham Young que se ele me deixar em paz, eu o deixarei em paz. & # 8221

Os santos não enviaram homens aos campos de batalha no leste para lutar na guerra, nem foram convidados a fazê-lo. Alguns Utahns foram, mas individualmente. Brigham Young acreditava que a dissolução da União seria possivelmente o fim da nação. A guerra também foi vista por muitos mórmons como uma retribuição divina sobre a nação que havia permitido que os santos fossem expulsos de suas casas, desprotegidos das turbas, em várias ocasiões. Após a partida de Cumming e Johnston, as tropas em Camp Floyd também partiram em julho de 1861. Isso permitiu que os santos demonstrassem sua lealdade à União. Membros da Legião de Nauvoo, a milícia local, prestaram serviço voluntário de curto prazo guardando a linha de correio. Outro ato significativo de lealdade ocorreu quando Brigham Young teve o privilégio de enviar a primeira mensagem de Salt Lake City no telégrafo transcontinental recém-concluído em outubro de 1861. Sua mensagem para Lincoln: & # 8220Utah não se separou, mas é firme pela Constituição e as leis de nosso país outrora feliz. & # 8221

Em abril de 1862, o presidente Lincoln pediu a Young que fornecesse uma companhia completa de cem homens para proteger o palco, as linhas telegráficas e as rotas de correio terrestre no condado de Green River (agora no sul do Wyoming).

Em 1863, o povo de Utah fez sua terceira tentativa de tornar-se um Estado. Os Mórmons repreenderam seus críticos, lembrando-os de que enquanto muitos estados estavam tentando deixar a União, Utah estava tentando entrar. Esta terceira petição foi negada, no entanto. Nesse ínterim, foi redigida uma constituição para o estado proposto de Deseret e uma lista completa de oficiais foi eleita com Brigham Young como governador. Este & # 8220ghost & # 8221 governo de Deseret reuniu-se por vários anos e, em muitos casos, tomou decisões que geralmente se transformavam em lei quando a legislatura territorial se reunia oficialmente.

Para surpresa dos cidadãos de Utah, a milícia local acabou sendo substituída pelos Terceiros Voluntários da Califórnia, que haviam recebido a ordem de assumir a guarda dos santos. Em outubro de 1862, o general Patrick Edward Connor chegou a Salt Lake City à frente dos 750 soldados voluntários da Califórnia e de Nevada.

Ficou claro desde a chegada de Connor que ele acreditava nas acusações anteriores de deslealdade dos Utahns. Os santos ficaram mortificados quando seu exército não ocupou o acampamento abandonado Floyd. Em vez disso, Connor escolheu um local com vista para a cidade, no sopé das montanhas diretamente a leste de Salt Lake City. Este novo posto militar foi denominado Camp Douglas (mais tarde Fort Douglas).

Em sua posição como líder militar, a principal tarefa de Connor era suprimir ataques indígenas contra o telégrafo terrestre e o correio. Uma escaramuça entre o exército e os índios ocorreu logo após a chegada das tropas & # 8217, quando três índios foram mortos e um ferido em 24 de novembro de 1862.

O confronto mais significativo entre as tropas federais e os índios ocorreu em 29 de janeiro de 1863, no que ficou conhecido como a Batalha de Bear River ou o Massacre de Bear River. A força de 300 soldados de Connor atacou um acampamento Shoshoni no rio Bear e matou mais de 250 homens, mulheres e crianças. Eles também queimaram a aldeia e, assim, quebraram a força dos índios da região.

Connor também tentou influenciar a economia e a política de Utah. Ele estabeleceu o Union Vedette, um jornal anti-mórmon, que se tornou um veículo para criticar os santos. Outra consequência da presença do Exército dos EUA em Utah, diretamente relacionada às intenções de Connor de curar a influência dos Santos dos Últimos Dias em Utah, foi a abertura de operações de mineração na área. Connor esperava que isso atraísse mais não-mórmons para a área e, assim, reduzisse a hegemonia mórmon.

Pouco depois do início da Guerra Civil, o governador Stephen S. Harding substituiu o governador em exercício Frank Fuller. Harding, junto com Connor, procurou mitigar a influência Mórmon nos assuntos de Utah. O novo governador acusou os santos de deslealdade. Depois que ele tentou anular os poderes dos tribunais de inventário locais e da milícia territorial, os santos solicitaram ao presidente a remoção de Harding & # 8217s. Lincoln respondeu, no que pode ser visto como um ato de reconciliação, substituindo Harding. O presidente, no entanto, em um esforço para aplacar os não-mórmons, também substituiu funcionários apreciados pelos santos, incluindo o juiz John F. Kinney e o secretário territorial Frank Fuller.

O substituto de Harding & # 8217, o governador James Duane Doty, ganhou o apoio e a cooperação dos Saints & # 8217 ao mostrar a genuína imparcialidade defendida por Lincoln. Utahns mostrou seu respeito pelo presidente durante a celebração de sua segunda posse. As autoridades de Salt Lake City e os líderes da Igreja SUD organizaram uma celebração patriótica conjunta em 4 de março de 1865.

A notícia do assassinato de Lincoln causou um profundo sentimento de perda entre os Utahns, e eles se uniram ao luto nacional. Negócios e o Teatro Salt Lake foram fechados, bandeiras foram penduradas a meio mastro e muitas casas no território foram decoradas com emblemas de luto. Até a carruagem pessoal de Brigham Young estava envolta em crepe preto. Mórmons e não-mórmons se reuniam no Tabernáculo, que também havia sido coberto para elogiar o presidente falecido. Uma autoridade mórmon e o capelão do exército de Camp Douglas falaram aos presentes.

Outro triste acontecimento logo se seguiu. O governador Doty, considerado por santos e não mórmons um executivo judicioso e talvez o melhor que o território já teve, morreu em junho de 1865.

Como a guerra estava chegando ao fim e era evidente que a União seria vitoriosa, Young ainda esperava que a crise no Leste permitisse aos santos alcançar a condição de Estado, remoção do exército de Utah, proteção dos direitos dos santos e # 8217 e eleição de funcionários locais.

No final da Guerra Civil, o General Connor foi honrosamente retirado do exército voluntário em 30 de abril de 1865. Nos anos do pós-guerra imediato, ele permaneceu um líder do movimento anti-Mórmon e envolveu-se na política de Utah.

Embora Utah não tenha alcançado a condição de estado, a retirada do exército ou a capacidade de influenciar a nomeação de oficiais federais, a igreja SUD em geral prosperou durante o período da Guerra Civil. Os convertidos ainda se reuniram e os assentamentos continuaram a ser estabelecidos na Grande Bacia. Brigham Young continuou sendo o líder respeitado dos santos, e a igreja continuou sendo uma potência viável e independente. O Território de Utah e seu povo, no entanto, eram inevitavelmente menos isolados. A concessão de autoridades federais e líderes da igreja durante a Guerra Civil ajudou a criar um período de coexistência mais pacífica em Utah.

Veja: E. B. Long, Os Santos e a União: Território de Utah durante a Guerra Civil (1981).


UNION PACIFIC RAILROAD

A Union Pacific Railroad tem sido um elo essencial na rede de transporte do Ocidente por mais de cento e vinte anos. A Union Pacific Railroad foi o segmento oriental da primeira ferrovia transcontinental concluída em 1869. Após anos de agitação por uma conexão ferroviária com a costa do Pacífico, em 1862 o Congresso dos Estados Unidos autorizou tal empreendimento. Quando a legislação original não conseguiu atrair capital suficiente para a realização do projeto, uma nova lei foi promulgada em 1864, dobrando as ofertas de terras federais e fazendo empréstimos generosos de trinta anos para grande parte dos custos de construção da estrada. A Union Pacific Railroad Company foi autorizada a iniciar a construção em Omaha, Nebraska, na direção oeste, enquanto a Central Pacific, deveria começar a construir em Sacramento, Califórnia, e cruzar as montanhas de Sierra Nevada em direção ao leste. Em geral, a competição corporativa para construir o máximo de quilômetros de ferrovias e, assim, obter a maior parte das concessões de terras e dinheiro de títulos não fez nada para melhorar a qualidade da construção.

No entanto, cada empresa fez um trabalho impressionante ao enfrentar seus respectivos obstáculos à medida que o projeto avançava. Desde a época em que a Union Pacific começou um trabalho sério em 1865, a empresa fazia em média mais de um quilômetro por dia, realizado em grande parte por meio do árduo trabalho de emigrantes irlandeses recém-chegados com picaretas, pás e raspadores puxados por mulas. Fornecer a esses trabalhadores o necessário para a vida deu a vários homens uma reputação duradoura de caçadores de búfalos e, por outro lado, sobrecarregou a engenhosidade dos fornecedores da empresa. Houve outros que inevitavelmente seguiram as equipes de trabalho para fornecer bebida, companhia feminina e instalações de jogos de azar documentadas em dezenas de fotografias - o & quothell sobre rodas & quot que cruzou as planícies adjacentes aos acampamentos de construção.

À medida que a ferrovia se estendia inexoravelmente para o oeste, ela abriu partes do Kansas, Nebraska, Colorado e Wyoming para um desenvolvimento mais amplo. A mineração, a pecuária e a atividade agrícola foram geralmente aprimoradas, proporcionando um transporte mais eficaz de mercadorias para os mercados do leste. Talvez nenhuma área tenha sofrido o impacto mais forte da Union Pacific do que o domínio entre as montanhas, colonizado por membros da Igreja de Jesus Cristo dos Santos dos Últimos Dias. Brigham Young, líder desses colonos isolados, reconheceu as vantagens e desvantagens da ferrovia que se aproximava e, incapaz de pará-la, tentou aproveitar ao máximo sua chegada. Isso tornaria a grande emigração anual de convertidos da Europa e do Oriente mais rápida, menos perigosa e menos cara. E prometia um bom trabalho remunerado para vários homens e animais de tração mórmons. No entanto, por outro lado, a ferrovia traria para o meio do Mormondom todos os males do mundo exterior que Young e seus associados há muito tempo denunciavam e odiavam. A chegada da ferrovia também aumentou incomensuravelmente a lucratividade da mineração no território e estimulou um grande influxo de residentes gentios semi-permanentes na região.

Young fez um acordo com a empresa ferroviária para contratos extensivos de classificação através dos difíceis desfiladeiros nas montanhas de Evanston, Wyoming, a Ogden, Utah. No último ano do projeto de construção, os jornais de Salt Lake City anunciaram que qualquer pessoa que desejasse emprego ou subcontratação se candidatasse a Joseph, John W. ou Brigham Young Jr., todos filhos do líder da igreja. Eles e o bispo John Sharp trabalharam como intermediários entre a Union Pacific e as equipes de trabalho locais assim recrutadas. Muitos dos trabalhadores mórmons estiveram presentes no importante evento da cravação da haste dourada em 10 de maio de 1869, celebrando a conclusão da ferrovia transcontinental. No entanto, o presidente da igreja estava ausente da ocasião e foi representado nos círculos oficiais por Sharp, que nos anos posteriores serviu no Conselho de Diretores da Union Pacific Railroad.

Brigham Young ficou infeliz por não conseguir persuadir a Union Pacific ou a Central Pacific a direcionar a rota através de Salt Lake City. Mas logo após a conclusão da linha principal, com estreita e contínua cooperação da Union Pacific, uma ferrovia central de Utah controlada pelos mórmons concluiu um ramal de Ogden a Salt Lake City. Para a próxima geração, os cidadãos do sul de Utah e promotores de mineração buscaram a construção de uma ferrovia que se estendia pela maior região dos Estados Unidos ainda não explorada por tais meios de transporte, entre Salt Lake City e Los Angeles, Califórnia. Embora muitos desses esquemas tenham sido projetados, nenhum deu certo, em grande parte porque Collis P. Huntington, da Central Pacific e das ferrovias associadas, pretendia manter o monopólio do transporte para a Califórnia.

A Union Pacific Railroad demonstrou consistentemente interesse em construir a linha de Salt Lake e Los Angeles, e as empresas subsidiárias gradualmente estenderam os trilhos até a fronteira de Nevada, perto de Caliente. Mas, sobrecarregada por escândalos, depressões financeiras e, finalmente, falência, a empresa maior não poderia fazer mais naquela época. No entanto, depois que Huntington morreu em 1900 e o financista independente de Montana, William A. Clark, começou a estender a ferrovia através dos desertos de Nevada e Califórnia, a ressurgente Union Pacific, sob o poderoso nova-iorquino Edwin H. Harriman, forçou Clark a renunciar ao controle e ao A linha de Salt Lake e Los Angeles continua sendo um segmento essencial da Union Pacific Railroad desde então.

Isenção de responsabilidade: as informações neste site foram convertidas de um livro de capa dura publicado pela University of Utah Press em 1994.


Ferrovias de Utah em "The Beehive State"

As ferrovias de Utah são reconhecidas por seu papel histórico em ser o local da conclusão da primeira ferrovia transcontinental de nosso país.

Este evento ocorreu no Promontory em 10 de maio de 1869 entre a reunião da Union Pacific Railroad e Central Pacific Railroad (hoje o local abriga o Golden Spike National Historic Site).

Índice

History aside, Utah's traffic has typically been natural resources like coal and copper although with Union Pacific's main line running through Salt Lake City don't be surprised to see a little bit of everything traveling through the state!

During its height the Beehive State was once home to four Class I railroads although today the state's trackage is mostly under the control of Union Pacific the rest operated by BNSF Railway and a few short lines like the historic Utah Railway.

Utah is often overlooked as a place where electrified interurbans were once found.  The state was actually home to one of the more successful and well-managed such operations, the Bamberger Railroad. 

It was successful it even maintained its own signaling system.  After the family-run business was sold in 1956, new ownership promptly abandoned the line in 1959.

Roger Puta captured this beautiful scene of Western Pacific's train #17, the westbound "California Zephyr," boarding at Salt Lake City, Utah around 10:40 PM on the night of November 15, 1968.

A Brief History Of Utah Railroads

While Utah railroads date back to the connection of the transcontinental railroad at Promontory just a year later in 1870 the Utah Central Railway completed its main line from the transcontinental connection at Ogden with Salt Lake City, a distance of some 40 miles.

Following the Utah Central other important lines to traverse Utah include the:

  • Southern Pacific (through its purchase of the Central Pacific Railroad)
  • Union Pacific's Overland Route (which ran through northern Utah)
  • Western Pacific's main line which would terminate in Salt Lake City
  • Rio Grande's main line to Salt Lake City and extensive branch line service throughout the state, largley to handle coal traffic

Classic Railroads And Interurbans To Serve Utah

What appears to be one of the Rio Grande's powerful 4-6-6-4's works its way over Soldier Summit within Utah's Wasatch Mountains in a snowy scene dating to the 1940s.

With two main lines along with operating most of the state's trackage today, perhaps the UP is the most-recognized and influential railroad ever to operate in Utah.

The Union Pacific Railroad's original main line (that is still in use today and quite busy) is the Overland Route, which runs between Ogden, Utah Omaha, Nebraska and Chicago.

Today's Union Pacific is much different from the system prior to 1980 as it operates as far north as Seattle, as far west as Los Angeles/Long Beach, as far east as Minneapolis, and as far south as Dallas, Brownsville, and New Orleans.

A Rio Grande PA/PB/PA set is eastbound with the new Budd-built, stainless-steel equipment for the "California Zephyr" near Ironton, Utah on March 16, 1949. The train officially launched a few days later on March 20th. Otto Roach photo.

While UP dominates the Beehive State one shouldn't forget about the historic Utah Railway.

The railroad is still based in its original headquarters located near Martin, Utah and is nearing its 100 birthday in 2012 having been incorporated in early 1912.

Union Pacific's train #104, the eastbound "City of Los Angeles," kicks up the snow as it passes through Unitah, Utah on December 19, 1970. Bringing up the rear is 10 roomette/6 bedroom sleeper "Pacific Emblem" (#1413), built by Pullman-Standard in February, 1950. Roger Puta photo.

Today it continues to carry on in much of the same way as it was originally intended, hauling coal. For more regarding the Utah Railway please਌lick here. 

Along with the Utah Railway and UP, BNSF makes a brief appearance in the Beehive State, operating a single line through the northern half of the state and reaching Salt Lake City.

Union Pacific caboose #25715 brings up the rear of a freight passing through Utah's Echo Canyon in December, 1984. Roger Puta photo.

Along with BNSF a few shortlines also operate in Utah and include the Deseret Western Railway and Salt Lake Garfield & Western Railway. 

Abandoned Railroads Of Utah

Utah, of course, is best known as being the location of the Transcontinental Railroad's completion.  In time, however, the state hosted many other through lines, important coal branches, and even a successful interurban.

Today, the interurban (Bamberger Railroad) is long gone, branches of the Rio Grande have been removed, and Los Angeles & Salt Lake Railroad (Union Pacific) routes have been removed.

This constitutes the bulk of the 800 miles removed across Utah since the 1920's.  The state was also home to its fair share of narrow-gauge operations (all 3 foot).

Most of these wound up as part of the Denver & Rio Grand Western system, which included the Bingham Canyon & Camp Floyd Railroad, Wasatch & Jordan Valley Railroad, and Utah & Pleasant Valley Railroad.

Others to operate here included the American Fork Railroad, Salt Lake & Fort Douglas Railway, Salt Lake & Eastern Railway, San Pete Valley Railroad, Summit County Railroad, Utah & Northern Railway, Utah Eastern Railroad, and Utah Western Railroad.

Finally, be sure and look for the never-used grades during the Transcontinental Railroad's construction.  These would be located west of Ogden and were built by both Union Pacific and Central crews around 1869.

They actually passed one another in the process as the parties could never agree upon a meeting location, partially in an effort to continue obtaining government subsidies.

As the book, "Railroads In The Days Of Steam," notes the government was paying upwards of $96,000 for every new mile the Transcontinental Railroad constructed, which included a 400-foot-wide right-of-way. 

Utah's railroads today operate nearly 1,500 miles of trackage with the state's peak mileage topping out at 2,161 during the 1920s. Because Utah has historically always featured through main line routes with few secondary and branch lines it still retains about 68% of its original rail infrastructure.

For more information on Utah railroads, in terms of route mileage over the years please take a look at the chart below.

* Utah's first railroads were, of course, Union Pacific and Central Pacific which officially completed the Transcontinental Railroad at Promontory Summit, Utah on May 10, 1869.  To read more about this endeavor please Clique aqui

In the end, UP built 70 miles from the Wyoming border to the meeting point while CP constructed 159 heading easterly from Nevada. 

In an ironic twist of fate, UP's section west from Omaha, Nebraska was relatively easy in comparison to CP's crossing of the rugged Sierra-Nevada's.  However, in Utah roles were reversed as it was essentially a straight shot across the desert for CP while UP crews were forced to carve out a right-of-way through the Wasatch Mountains' Echo Canyon.

Utah railroads are also home to the famed California Zephyrਊs Amtrak has been continuously operating the train over much of its original route dating back to the days of the CZ's ownership under the D&RGW, CB&Q and Western Pacific.

A Union Pacific track worker hustles through the Echo Canyon in his speeder during December, 1984. Roger Puta photo.

And, Utah is now home to the highly anticipated Frontrunner commuter rail system operating between Salt Lake City, Pleasant View and Ogden, Utah which opened in 2008.  

State Map (1891)

Southern Pacific FP7 #6447 has Rio Grande's train #18, the "Rio Grande Zephyr," at Becks, Utah on May 19, 1970. Roger Puta photo.

Other interesting museums include the Ogden Union Station Railroad Museum and the Western Mining and Railroad Museum. 

In all, not only is the exquisite natural beauty of Utah alone worth a trip to the Beehive State but also seeing its interesting and unique railroad operations make a visit quite rewarding as well. 


Utah enters the Union - HISTORY

By Richard Klobuchar

Very few among the throngs of visitors to Pearl Harbor on the island of Oahu are aware of an anomaly, but it definitely exists in the case of the USS Utah.

On the east side of Ford Island in the middle of the harbor lies one of the world’s most visited tourist attractions. A gleaming white, architecturally unique memorial straddles the submerged hulk of the U.S. battleship Arizona. The memorial was constructed in 1962 to honor the Arizona’s 1,177 sailors who died when the ship exploded during the surprise attack by Japanese aircraft on December 7, 1941. Visitors to the Arizona Memorial from around the world number over a million annually.

On the western shore of Ford Island, a scant mile away, is a second memorial. This, too, honors the dead members from the crew of a U.S. battleship, sunk during the same attack, and almost to the minute of the USS Arizona. Both ships rest on the harbor bottom with part of their superstructure exposed, and both still entomb many of their deceased crew within their hulls.

However, the contrast between the elegance of the Arizona Memorial and the starkness of the open concrete platform and walkway of the other memorial could not be more profound. Although U.S. Navy launches carry hordes of visitors to the Arizona Memorial daily, the general public does not enjoy similar access to the second memorial. Most visitors to the Arizona Memorial are not even aware that there is another memorial—the USS Utah Memorial—in Pearl Harbor.

Therein resides the paradox of Pearl Harbor. o Utah (BB-31) enjoyed a noble career that spanned more than three decades and included considerable international service. Like other U.S. battleships of the early 20th century, its design was greatly influenced by the first all-big-gun British battleship, HMS Dreadnought, which revolutionized naval warfare. (Read about the greatest naval war battles throughout history inside the pages of Military Heritage magazine.)

The USS Utah‘s First Conflicts: The Mexican Revolution and the First World War

o Utah, one of the two-ship Florida-class, was laid down on March 9, 1909, at the New York Shipbuilding Yard in Camden, New Jersey. It was an imposing design for its time, with a length of 521.5 feet, a beam of 88.2 feet, a displacement of 21,825 tons, and a speed of 20.75 knots. It was comparable to any battleship in the world and could operate on either coal or oil.

Although designed for 14-inch main batteries, because of supply problems it was fitted with 10 12-inch/45 guns. Secondary armament consisted of 16 5-inch/51 guns and two 21-inch torpedo tubes.

Utah was launched on December 23, 1909, with Mary Alice Spry, 18-year-old daughter of Utah Governor William Spry, christening the ship. o Utah was completed in 1911, and after sea trials off the coast of Maine, was commissioned on August 31, 1911. Utah then took her place in the battle line of the U.S Navy.

After several years of maneuvers, exercises, and midshipman cruises, Utah participated in her first major action in 1914. With a revolution sweeping Mexico, President Woodrow Wilson embargoed arms and military supplies to the country’s dictator, General Victoriano Huerta. When Germany agreed to furnish arms to Huerta, a task force including Utah was ordered to Vera Cruz to intercept the shipment.

Converted to a target ship in 1930 , the battleship USS Utah is shown during World War I in a camouflage scheme intended to confuse the enemy range finders.

Com Utah’s contribution of 384 officers and men, a task force brigade landed at Vera Cruz on April 21. In spirited fighting, this force captured vital warehouses and forced the rebels to surrender. Eventually, General Huerta fled to Germany and the revolution ended.

Utah continued to operate in Atlantic and Caribbean waters until the United States entered World War I in 1917. Fearing German attacks on Atlantic troop convoys, a squadron of U.S. battleships was dispatched to Bantry Bay, Ireland, in August 1918. With Utah as flagship and leading Nevada (BB-36) and Oklahoma (BB-37), this force provided protection for convoys approaching the British Isles until war’s end.

Preparing to Fight a Modern War: The Utah as a Training Ship

The USS Utah continued in the Atlantic Fleet until 1931, taking part in a number of important diplomatic missions to Europe and South America by carrying top government officials. Her days as a battleship ended on July 1, 1931, when, under the terms of the 1930 London Naval Treaty, she was designated to be converted to a noncombatant ship. Her 12-inch guns and other armament were removed, but her huge, empty turrets remained. She was also fitted with modern electronics and other equipment for her new role as a fleet target ship. She was recommissioned in that configuration as AG-16 on April 1, 1932.

For the following nine years, Utah operated with the Pacific Fleet, usually based at Long Beach, California. Her new equipment allowed her engines and steering gear to be operated either manually or by remote control from another ship. In this role, Utah provided realistic training for the fleet’s pilots in dive-, torpedo-, and high-level bombing.

All bombs and torpedoes used were inert, water-filled projectiles. However, even small inert bombs dropped from high altitudes could cause damage to the Utah’s deck and other features. Large 6-inch by 12-inch timbers were laid on the deck, giving it a foot of added protection. Crewmen who remained on the ship during target practice found refuge below deck or in the armored conning tower near the bridge. Utah also provided practice for the fleet’s big guns. She towed target sleds, which allowed battleship and cruiser batteries to hone their skills at long range using live ammunition.

In 1935, Utah became even more versatile. In recognition of the new threat posed by modern aircraft, the Navy established a fleet antiaircraft school on the ship. The fleet’s most experienced machine gunners were assigned to the Utah as instructors for the course. Utah provided .50-caliber training for the first year and added quadruple 1.1-inch mounts the following year. By 1941, the mainstay of the fleet antiaircraft weaponry had become the 5-inch gun, and during an overhaul in Bremerton, Washington, four 5/38 and four 5/25 guns were added in single mounts.

Plowing through the Pacific on December 10, 1936, the USS Utah is employed as a target ship by the navy. Her 12-inch main guns and other weaponry have been removed.

Utah was now not only a mobile target ship, but the primary fleet antiaircraft training ship as well. When the ship was in target mode, its cranes placed steel housings over the 5-inch guns to protect them from damage during bombing practice. Smaller guns were moved below deck.

Utah was ordered to Hawaii in September 1941 to help train the Pacific Fleet’s antiaircraft gunners and carrier bomber pilots. On December 4, the target completed a three-week assignment and returned to Pearl Harbor for routine maintenance and replenishment. Docked at berth Fox 11 on the west side of Ford Island, the ship occupied a berth usually reserved for an aircraft carrier. Her crews worked on December 5 and 6 to unfasten the huge timbers so they could be off loaded in the Navy yard the following week. She would never reach the Navy yard.

Sinking the USS Utah

Utah was still berthed at F-11 on the morning of Sunday, December 7, her crew anticipating a leisurely day. She had company along the west side of Ford Island, including the seaplane tender Tangier immediately astern and cruisers Raleigh e Detroit directly ahead. Like most men of the Pacific Fleet, few of Utah’s crew thought that war would come to Hawaii. It was too isolated for attack from the air, and Pearl Harbor’s destroyers and battleships were capable of dealing with any submarines or surface ships foolish enough to approach the islands. The harbor thus appeared safe from any threat.

Just before 0800, men on deck noticed aircraft circling over the south end of Ford Island. Although Sunday morning exercises were not common, they did occur. Even when explosions were heard, Utah’s observers assumed that the exercises were simply a bit more realistic that morning. That assumption evaporated at 0755, when a roar out of the southwest shattered the stillness of the new day.

Sixteen aircraft flying extremely low in squadrons of eight approached the Utah. The planes were Kate torpedo bombers from the Japanese aircraft carriers Hiryu e Soryu. Their pilots had been alerted before takeoff that they were to attack only battleships and aircraft carriers and that none were expected to be moored on Ford Island’s west side.

Moored across Ford Island from Battleship Row, the USS Utah was struck by Japanese torpedoes during the opening moments of the attack on Pearl Harbor.

Nevertheless, six of the Soryu pilots misunderstood the orders and attacked. Two launched their torpedoes at Utah, two at Detroit, and two at Raleigh. Both torpedoes aimed at Detroit missed and buried themselves in the mud of Ford Island’s shore. Raleigh was hit by a single torpedo and began to list immediately. Both missiles directed at Utah hit amidships, only seconds apart at 0801, and ripped open her hull. Without watertight integrity, Utah began to list within minutes. At 0805 the list reached 40 degrees, and it was apparent that the ship would soon capsize.

The attacking aircraft were part of a force of 350 planes from six Japanese aircraft carriers, striking Oahu’s military installations in two waves an hour apart. Many of the first-wave bombers congregated on the east side of Ford Island where the fleet’s eight battleships, their principal targets, were moored. Within minutes, most of these had taken multiple torpedo or bomb hits and were settling on the harbor bottom or blazing from fires fed by the fuel and ammunition stored within them.

On the west side of Ford Island, the torpedo hits triggered a variety of reactions from Utah’s crew. Those on deck knew quickly that the ship would turn over, and their decision to leave was hastened by machine-gun bullets slamming into the ship’s deck. Many, like Radioman 3rd Class William Hughes, dove off the ship and swam to nearby concrete mooring quays where they found refuge. Others, like Pharmacist’s Mate 2nd Class Lee Soucy and Electrician’s Mate 3rd Class Warren Upton, slid down the barnacle- encrusted hull, swam to shore, and dove into a newly excavated utility trench. Even though he had left his first-aid kit on the ship, Soucy spent most of the day treating wounded men.

Trapped Below Deck

Below deck, Electrician’s Mate 3rd Class Dave Smith, one of the ship’s crane operators, heard the roar of aircraft engines and glanced out of a porthole in time to see the red circles on the aircraft that had just dropped torpedoes at Utah. “I suddenly realized that we were being attacked by Japanese planes,” he explained. “When the torpedoes hit and the ship began to list, I scrambled up to the main deck, climbed down the starboard side, and swam to shore.”

Seaman John Vaessen also felt the torpedo hits below deck and the ship beginning to list. He stopped to secure fans and other electrical equipment and turn on emergency lighting. As the ship capsized, Vaessen was forced to evade a rain of dislodged equipment that now became deadly missiles. As the ship settled in the mud, Vaessen was still alive, but trapped in a dark, frightening, upside-down world.

He knew that his only chance of survival was to reach the bilges, since they would be above water in the shallow harbor. He headed for the nearest bilge hatch using the light from a flashlight that he had been working on when the torpedoes hit. As he reached the hatch, he was blessed with another miracle when he discovered that the huge wrench needed to loosen the cover was still hanging in its place.

Crawling through the hatch, Vaessen could see water rising behind him. Upon reaching the hull, he began rapping with the hatch wrench he kept for that purpose. He continued rapping even after painful blisters formed on his hand. The water was now only eight feet behind him and still rising when he heard rapping and voices outside the hull.

Crewmen on shore had heard Vaessen’s rapping and returned to the hull to locate the noise. Taking a launch to the Raleigh, they returned with a cutting torch and operators. The water was only three feet from Vaessen when he noticed the red spot forming on the hull from the acetylene torch. He knew it would be a close race to see which reached him first—the water or the rescuers. Minutes later, the men outside completed the cut and knocked the circular remnant through the hole. As they pulled Vaessen out, battered and burned but still alive, water was licking at his heels. He was the only crewman rescued through the hull.

“Get Out Now. Leave Immediately!”

Peter Tomich.

Not every crewman caught below deck when the torpedoes struck chose to seek safety topside. Chief Water Tender Peter Tomich recognized that if cold water reached the hot boilers, they would explode, endangering everyone still aboard the ship. Someone had to stay behind to secure the boilers. As the Utah began to roll over, Tomich knew what he had to do. He ordered all boiler room personnel to leave at once.

“Get out, now. Leave immediately!” he yelled.

He then ignored his own order and began to work. As his men turned one last time to watch him, he was already turning valves and setting gauges. The ship continued to roll as he worked, and he knew that by the time he completed his task, escape would be impossible. That thought did not deter him, and he continued with his life-saving efforts even though he realized that his own death was now only minutes away.

Tomich was an extraordinary man. Born Peter Tonic in 1893 in Prolog, a small village in what is now Herzegovina, he emigrated to the United States at age 20. He served in the U.S. Army for 18 months, and while in the service became a United States citizen. Ten days after discharge in 1919, he enlisted in the U.S. Navy and served continuously for the next 22 years. He became one of the most proficient men at his position in the entire Pacific Fleet. Except for a cousin in New York, his only family was the sailors he served with, and the Navy his only home.

Finding a Home for Tomich’s Medal of Honor

For his actions in knowingly sacrificing his life to save others, in 1942 Tomich was awarded a posthumous Medal of Honor. A letter sent to his cousin, John Tonic, announcing the award was returned stamped “address unknown.” Tonic had returned to Europe 20 years earlier.

For the next 64 years, Tomich’s medal was displayed in a number of locations, including the USS Tomich, a new destroyer-escort named after him in 1943 the Utah State House a Navy museum in Washington, D.C. and Tomich Hall, a new academic building at the Senior Enlisted Academy in Newport, Rhode Island. There it served as an inspiration to the hundreds of chief petty officers who attended the school annually.

A lengthy search through the years for a Tomich relative bore fruit in 1997, when representatives of the New York Naval Militia visited Croatia. There they located Srecko Herceg-Tonic, a retired lieutenant colonel in the Croatian Army. Tonic was the grandson of Tomich’s cousin, John Tonic. A nine-year bureaucratic and legal battle ensued over the proposal of the New York Naval Militia to have the Tomich medal presented to Herceg-Tonic.

In 2006, the knotty issue was finally resolved when the U.S. Navy agreed to relinquish the medal. In an hour-long ceremony aboard the carrier USS Empreendimento (CVN-65) in Split, Croatia, on May 18, Empreendimento sailors and a contingent of its chief petty officers witnessed Admiral Henry Ulrich, Commander, U.S. Naval Forces in Europe, presenting Peter Tomich’s Medal of Honor to a beaming Srecko Herceg-Tonic.

“Peter Tomich is one of only 39 chief petty officers in all naval history to receive the Medal of Honor,” explained Empreendimento’s Command Master Chief, Paul Declerq. “He’s one of us.” Like Tomich himself, the medal finally found a permanent home.

An Extra Set of Remains

Although 54 Utah crewmen are still interred in the hull, in 2000 the amazing discovery was made that there are actually 55 sets of remains on the ship. Mary Wagner Kreigh, daughter of former crewman Albert Wagner, revealed an incredible story she had kept hidden for almost 60 years. She told the world that the ashes of her twin sister, Nancy Lynne Wagner, had been buried within the Utah since the ship sank in 1941.

Nancy had died at birth in 1937 at Makati in the Philippines Mary, although hospitalized for several months, survived. Wagner had Nancy cremated and later brought the urn aboard the Utah. He intended to have her ashes scattered at sea when a chaplain was assigned to the ship. That day never came. Burials at sea were a tradition in the Wagner family. In 1936, while serving aboard the battleship USS Pennsylvania (BB-38), he had such a burial for another daughter, Helen, who had also died at birth.

While serving as a target ship off Long Beach, California, on April 18, 1935, the USS Utah lies at anchor. The aging warship’s armaments had been previously removed to comply with the terms of the London Naval Treaty.

Divers inspecting the Utah several weeks after it sank tried to enter the quarters of Chief Yeoman Wagner to retrieve Nancy’s urn. They were unable to penetrate the wreckage. It would remain there for eternity and serve as the burial at sea that Chief Wagner had intended for his daughter. Although Mary kept the secret of Nancy’s ashes for decades, she made many trips to the Utah to visit her sister’s grave. Since 1990, she has visited it annually.

Finally, on December 6, 2003, 66 years after she died, Nancy received a formal burial. Mary, her daughter Nina, friends, and reserve and active duty Navy personnel attended a service at the Utah Memorial overlooking the ship.

Mary felt relieved that a huge burden had been lifted from her shoulders. As she put it, “For 62 years the courageous crew of the Utah has watched over a tiny copper urn in my father’s locker. Nina and I are so grateful that my twin sister has finally received God’s blessing in the presence of men and women of the United States Navy. Our tears are tears of joy, not sadness. One day I hope to join her aboard our beloved ship.”

Mary has remained active in the USS Utah Association, has hosted its recent reunions, and is currently its public relations director.

Utah’s crew numbered just over 500 at the time of the attack. When it was over, 58 crewmen had been killed by strafing, flying timbers, or drowning within the hull. Only the battleships Arizona, California, West Virginia, e Oklahoma (which also capsized) suffered a greater number of fatalities. Four of the dead were recovered and buried ashore, leaving 54 to serve their eternal watch within the Utah.

A Forgotten Grave Site

Efforts to salvage the sunken ships began within days of the attack. Most of the effort centered on the east side of Ford Island where four battleships and several other ships had sunk. Little was done on the Utah until 1943 because of the low potential for returning the ship to useful service. o Oklahoma was righted that same year, floated, and moved to a drydock to make her seaworthy.

The complicated derrick system used to right the Oklahoma was then installed on the Utah after her guns, fuel oil, and other upper works were removed to lighten the ship. A righting operation began in February 1944 and was only partially successful. It did pull the hulk closer to shore and away from the shipping channel, but instead of righting, the hull merely slid along the bottom and settled deeper in the mud. Righting operations then ceased. When another attempt to free the anchorage location was rejected in 1956, the Navy declared Utah to be a permanent grave site.

A unique system of cables and pulleys was fashioned for the effort to right the capsized battleship USS Oklahoma after the Pearl Harbor attack. The USS Utah was partially righted in 1944, but further salvage operations on the venerable ship were abandoned.

For over a decade, nothing further occurred at the Utah site. At the Arizona site, however, the Navy erected a wooden platform in 1950 to allow a daily flag raising to honor her 1,177 dead. A commemorative plaque at the base of the flagpole served as a memorial. On May 30, 1962, after years of planning and fund raising, a permanent memorial constructed over the Arizona’s hull was dedicated.

This gleaming white structure draws thousands of visitors daily and has become the focus of activities honoring all who died at Pearl Harbor. On October 10, 1980, a $4.5 million Visitor Center complex was opened on Pearl Harbor’s shore to service the crowds of Arizona Memorial visitors. On that day, operations of the Arizona Memorial and Visitor Center were turned over to the U.S. National Park Service.

Commemorative activities at the Utah were much more austere. A bronze plaque was attached to Utah’s deck in 1950. Its simple message was, “In Memory—Officers and Men—USS Utah—Lost in Action—7 December 1941.” Since visitors did not have access to the ship, no one could actually read this plaque. A readable second plaque was then placed on a wharf just to the north of the ship.

The plaques served as the principal memorials until 1972, when a permanent memorial was finally constructed. It consisted of a 15- by 40-foot concrete platform connected to shore by a 70-foot walkway. Neither the platform nor the walkway touches the Utah. A flagpole in a corner of the platform allows a daily flag raising. The memorial was formally dedicated on May 27, 1972.

o Utah Memorial remained basically unchanged until 2005, when a $900,000 Navy construction project provided needed structural repairs to the memorial’s foundation, as well as other improvements.

Both Utah e Arizona were destroyed in the same action and sank within two minutes of each other. Both still have crewmen entombed within them and are the only ships in the harbor remaining from the attack on December 7. On May 5, 1989, both were designated as national historic landmarks, which provides them with special consideration for preservation. Like the Arizona, survivors of the Utah are now permitted to have their ashes interred within their ship when they die. Five have chosen to do so.

The Symbolism of the USS Arizona vs the Heritage of the Utah

In spite of these similarities, comparisons between the two ships are usually one sided. Utah was not sunk by a spectacular explosion as was Arizona it capsized over a period of 11 minutes. Enquanto Arizona was a principal target of the attack, Utah was attacked by mistake. Arizona lost 1,177 men, about 85 percent of the crew on board during the attack. Utah’s death toll of 58 was 12 percent of her on-board crew. Approximately 1,002 of Arizona’s crew are still on board, while 54 of Utah’s crew still remain.

These statistics should not belittle the lives or achievements of the Utah or her crew. They fought as gallantly as men on any ship in the harbor on that morning. The sight of the incredible explosion as Arizona’s forward magazine blew up, and the huge and instantaneous death toll rightfully focused the world’s attention on that ship. It properly became the symbol of the “day of infamy.”

That symbolism was eventually responsible for creating the magnificent structure and shore facilities at the Arizona site. The greatest frustration of Utah survivors and their families is that the public has no similar direct access to the Utah Memorial.

No Navy launches stop there, and access may be gained solely from Ford Island, which is still an active military installation. Civilians are allowed on the island only with a formal permit. Although this is possible, the visitors to the Utah Memorial in recent years have numbered only in the dozens annually, a far cry from the million and a half who visit the Arizona Memorial. Most visitors to the Arizona Memorial are not even aware of the existence of the Utah Memorial less than a mile away.

Ironically, if the Navy had been successful in removing the Arizona’s hull in 1942, Utah would have been the sole attack victim remaining in Pearl Harbor. It, then, would have been the recipient of the public attention and the focus of efforts to establish a permanent memorial there.

Ending the Paradox of Pearl Harbor

It is not envy that prompts Utah survivors to seek increased public awareness of their ship’s existence. They fully understand the relationship between the two ships and are supportive of the attention given to the Arizona. They are, however, interested in seeking changes to current operations within the harbor to permit visitors to at least view Utah’s remains. This would be a logical first step in increasing public knowledge of the ship’s fate on that terrible Sunday in December 1941.

Overshadowed by the stately memorial to the USS Arizona less than a mile away, the simple memorial constructed at the grave of the USS Utah in 1972 commemorates the 54 sailors who lost their lives aboard the vessel on December 7, 1941.

A modest expansion of the USS Utah Memorial’s platform and allowing direct visitor access to it appear to be feasible and fundable solutions. Access could be provided either by water or by land using shuttle buses like those carrying visitors to the battleship USS Missouri (BB-63), moored near the Arizona Memorial. Visitors would then be able to view both national historic landmarks and both burial sites in Pearl Harbor.

An additional step to improve access to the Utah would be to transfer the Utah Memorial to the National Park Service, thus placing both memorials under the umbrella of the same federal jurisdiction. The income generated by the visitor center could then be used to support both memorials. Then, the Utah might no longer be known as “the other memorial,” and the paradox of Pearl Harbor could finally cease to exist.

Richard Klobuchar is the author of the books Pearl Harbor: Awakening a Sleeping Giant, which is sold at the Pearl Harbor Visitor Center, and USS Ward: Operational History of the Ship That Fired the First American Shot of World War II, published in March 2007.


Relief

The Colorado Plateau comprises slightly more than half of Utah. Relatively high in elevation, this region is cut by brilliantly coloured canyons.

The western third of the state is part of the Great Basin of the Basin and Range Province, a broad, flat, desertlike area with occasional mountain peaks. The Great Salt Lake lies in the northeastern part of the region. To the southwest of the lake is the Great Salt Lake Desert, covering some 4,000 square miles (10,500 square km), which include the Bonneville Salt Flats, the site of many automobile and motorcycle land-speed trials.

The Middle Rockies in the northeast comprise the Uinta Mountains, one of the few mountain ranges in the United States running in an east-west direction, and the Wasatch Range. Along the latter runs a series of valleys and plateaus known as the Wasatch Front. The Wasatch Range exhibits many glacially formed features such as cirques and moraines. Canyons have been formed by various streams.

Elevations range from 13,528 feet (4,123 metres) at Kings Peak in the Uintas to about 2,350 feet (715 metres) in the southwestern corner of the state. The Oquirrh and Deep Creek ranges of the Great Basin are important for their deposits of copper, gold, lead, and zinc.


Utah enters the Union - Jan 04, 1896 - HISTORY.com

TSgt Joe C.

Six years after Wilford Woodruff, president of the Mormon church, issued his Manifesto reforming political, religious, and economic life in Utah, the territory is admitted into the Union as the 45th state.

In 1823, Vermont-born Joseph Smith claimed that an angel named Moroni visited him and told him about an ancient Hebrew text that had lost been lost for 1,500 years. The holy text, supposedly engraved on gold plates by a Native-American historian in the fourth century, related the story of Jewish peoples who had lived in America in ancient times. Over the next six years, Smith dictated an English translation of this text to his wife and other scribes, and in 1830, The Book of Mormon was published. In the same year, Smith founded the Church of Christ, later known as the Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints, in Fayette, New York.

The religion rapidly gained converts and Smith set up Mormon communities in Ohio, Missouri, and Illinois. However, the Christian sect was also heavily criticized for its unorthodox practices and on June 27, 1844, Smith and his brother were murdered in a jail cell by an anti-Mormon mob in Carthage, Illinois. Two years later, Smith’s successor, Brigham Young, led an exodus of persecuted Mormons from Nauvoo, Illinois, along the western wagon trails in search of religious and political freedom.

In July 1847, the 148 initial Mormon pioneers reached Utah’s Valley of the Great Salt Lake. Upon viewing the valley, Young declared: “This is the place,” and the pioneers began preparations for the tens of thousands of Mormon migrants who would follow.


Utah enters the Union - HISTORY

Utah State Historical Society

Finding aid encode in EAD 1.0 by Craig Ringgenberg using XMetaL 1.0, 2004. Finding aid written in English .

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Utah State Historical Society

Copyright 2005, Utah State Historical Society. Todos os direitos reservados. Reproduction, storage or transmittal of this work, or any part of it, in any form or by any means, for commercial purposes, is prohibited without prior authorization of the Utah State Historical Society. This work may be used for scholarly and other non-commercial use provided that the Utah State Historical Society is acknowledged as the creator and copyright holder.

Steven K. Madsen Papers, 1992-1994

Organizations: Sons of Utah Pioneers Places: Union, Utah Form or Genre: Correspondence, reports, studies, master plan, research. Background Background Note

Union, Utah, located 12 miles south-southwest of Salt Lake City, began as a fort during the Mormon confrontations with Native Americans in the summer of 1853. By 1854, Union had 23 families living within the fort. Today, the area is considered an outgrowth of Salt Lake City. In 1992, the area came under development by Hermes Company of Salt Lake City.

Steven K. Madsen received his M.A. in History from Brigham Young University in 1986. He has written several books, including A Union, Utah, History (1982), the history of Union and its place within the larger framework of Utah history. He has also coauthored a number of books with C. Gregory Crampton, including the U.S. government studies The Navigational History of Bear River, Wyoming, Idaho, Utah (1975), Boating on the Upper Colorado (1975), and In Search of the Spanish Trail: Santa Fe to Los Angeles, 1829-1848 (1994).

Collection created by Steven K. Madsen, a resident of the Union Fort area as well as a historian of the area. This collection includes correspondence between Madsen and others involved in the research and preservation of the Union Fort area as it was coming under development by Hermes Company of Salt Lake City. This collection includes copies of presentations Madsen made to the county commission and various organizations. These presentations, clippings from various local and statewide newspapers, and articles that appeared in the Utah Heritage Foundation's publications are often duplicates scattered throughout the various files.

Steven K. Madsen Papers, 1992-1994, Utah State Historical Society.

Gift of Steven K. Madsen, 2004.

The Steven K. Madsen Papers are the physical property of the Utah Historical Society, Salt Lake City, Utah. Literary rights, including copyright, may belong to the authors or their heirs and assigns. Please contact the Historical Society for information regarding specific use of this collection.


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