Estação Ferroviária para a Prefeitura

Estação Ferroviária para a Prefeitura


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Pouco antes das 10 horas de um domingo, 28 de junho de 1914, Franz Ferdinand e Sophie von Chotkovato chegaram a Sarajevo de trem. O general Oskar Potiorek, governador das províncias austríacas da Bósnia-Herzegovina, esperava para levar o grupo real à prefeitura para a recepção oficial.

No carro da frente estava Fehim Curcic, o prefeito de Sarajevo e o Dr. Gerde, o comissário de polícia da cidade. Franz Ferdinand e Sophie von Chotkovato estavam no segundo carro com Oskar Potiorek e o Conde von Harrach. A capota do carro foi rebatida para permitir à multidão uma boa visão dos ocupantes.

A força policial local estava encarregada das providências de segurança para a visita real. Antes da chegada de Franz Ferdinand a Sarajevo, trinta e cinco criadores de problemas em potencial foram presos e levados sob custódia. Cento e vinte policiais foram colocados ao longo da rota que o grupo real deveria seguir a caminho da Prefeitura, mas foi decidido que os 70.000 soldados austro-húngaros em Sarajevo seriam mantidos em seus quartéis.

Sem que a polícia de Sarajevo soubesse, sete membros do grupo Mão Negra também se alinhavam no trajeto. Eles estavam espaçados ao longo do cais Appel, cada um tinha sido instruído a tentar matar Franz Ferdinand quando o carro real alcançasse sua posição. O primeiro conspirador na rota para ver o carro real foi Muhamed Mehmedbasic. Em pé ao lado do Banco Austro-Húngaro, Mehmedbasic perdeu a coragem e deixou o carro passar sem agir. Mehmedbasic disse mais tarde que um policial estava parado atrás dele e temia que ele fosse preso antes de ter a chance de jogar sua bomba.

O próximo homem na rota foi Nedjelko Cabrinovic. Às 10h15. Cabrinovic deu um passo à frente e atirou sua bomba no carro do arquiduque. O motorista acelerou ao ver o objeto voando em sua direção e a bomba explodiu sob o volante do próximo carro. Dois dos ocupantes, Eric von Merizzi e o conde Boos-Waldeck, ficaram gravemente feridos. Cerca de uma dúzia de espectadores também foram atingidos por estilhaços de bombas.

Depois de lançar sua bomba, Nedjelko Cabrinovic engoliu o cianeto que carregava e pulou no rio Miljacka. Quatro homens, incluindo dois detetives, o seguiram e conseguiram prendê-lo. O veneno não o matou e ele foi levado para a delegacia de polícia local.

O motorista de Franz Ferdinand, Franz Urban, dirigia extremamente rápido e outros membros do grupo Mão Negra na rota, Cvijetko Popovic, Gavrilo Princip, Danilo Ilic e Trifko Grabez, decidiram que era inútil tentar matar o arquiduque quando o carro estava indo nessa velocidade.

Um pequeno recorte de um jornal enviado sem comentários por um bando secreto de terroristas em Zagreb aos seus camaradas em Belgrado foi a tocha que incendiou o mundo com a guerra em 1914. O pequeno recorte era do Srobibran, um jornal Croation de circulação limitada, e consistia em um pequeno telegrama de Viena. O telegrama declarava que o arquiduque austríaco Franz Ferdinand visitaria Sarajevo, capital da Bósnia, em 28 de junho, para dirigir as manobras do exército.

Como ousou Franz Ferdinand, não só o representante do opressor, mas em sua própria pessoa um tirano arrogante, entrar em Sarajevo naquele dia? Essa entrada foi um insulto estudado. 28 de junho é uma data gravada profundamente no coração de cada sérvio, então esse dia tem um nome próprio. É chamado vidounan. É o dia em que o antigo reino sérvio foi conquistado pelos turcos na batalha de Amselfelde em 1389. Não era dia para Francisco Ferdinando, o novo opressor, se aventurar até as portas da Sérvia para uma exibição da força de braços que nos mantiveram sob seu calcanhar. Nossa decisão foi tomada quase imediatamente. Morte ao tirano!

Nossos corações estão cheios de felicidade pela visita mais graciosa com a qual Vossas Altezas têm o prazer de homenagear nossa capital Sarajevo, e me considero feliz que Vossas Altezas possam ler em nossos rostos os sentimentos de nosso amor e devoção, de nossa inabalável lealdade , e de nossa obediência a Sua Majestade nosso Imperador e Rei, e à Mais Serena Dinastia de Habsburgo-Lorena.

Todos os cidadãos da capital Sarajevo descobrem que as suas almas estão cheias de felicidade e saúdam com muito entusiasmo a visita mais ilustre de Vossas Altezas com as mais cordiais boas-vindas, profundamente convictos de que esta estada na nossa amada cidade de Sarajevo aumentará cada vez mais. O mais gracioso interesse de Vossas Altezas em nosso progresso e bem-estar, e sempre fortificar nossa mais profunda gratidão e lealdade, uma lealdade que habitará imutavelmente em nossos corações, e que crescerá para sempre.

É para mim um prazer especial aceitar as garantias de sua inabalável lealdade e afeto por Sua Majestade, nosso Gracioso Imperador e Rei. Agradeço-lhe cordialmente as ovações contundentes com que a população recebeu a mim e à minha mulher, tanto mais que nelas uma expressão de alegria pelo fracasso da tentativa de homicídio.


História de Manitoba: Recebendo Imigrantes no Portal do Canadá e rsquos West: Immigration Halls em Winnipeg, 1872-1975

& ldquoO grande não lavado. & rdquo O fotógrafo G. F. Ridsdale capturou esta imagem das pessoas no Winnipeg Immigration Hall, por volta de 1900.
Fonte: Biblioteca e Arquivos do Canadá, PA-122676.

Em 1869, o novo Domínio do Canadá providenciou a compra da Rupert & rsquos Land da Hudson & rsquos Bay Company e o negócio foi concluído no início de 1870. Daquela época até a chegada da Grande Depressão em 1930, uma preocupação principal do governo canadense era povoar as pradarias. A pequena cidade de Winnipeg foi estabelecida em um ponto-chave de transporte de água - as bifurcações dos rios Vermelho e Assiniboine. Até a chegada da Canadian Pacific Railway (CPR) em 1881, a principal rota para o oeste era através dos Estados Unidos e, em seguida, descendo o Rio Vermelho até Winnipeg. Depois que a ferrovia começou a se mover para o oeste a partir de Winnipeg, a cidade em crescimento se tornou a sede ocidental das atividades de imigração canadense e por mais de sessenta anos o ponto de distribuição para todos os imigrantes que buscavam se estabelecer no oeste. Todos foram obrigados a cancelar o treinamento em Winnipeg e serem processados ​​nos escritórios de imigração localizados lá. Para gerir este processo, o departamento de imigração teve de providenciar alojamento para os imigrantes. Este artigo conta a história dos numerosos saguões de imigração que foram construídos e operados em Winnipeg durante o Canadá e o século I.


Construindo a Market Street Elevated no oeste da Filadélfia Crianças posam ao lado de equipamentos de construção perto da primeira seção construída do Mercado Elevado. A Market Street Subway and Elevated foi inaugurada no oeste da Filadélfia em 1907, transportando passageiros de três estações ao longo da linha elevada para a 23rd Street e de lá para a prefeitura. A Market Street Subway and Elevated abriu seu serviço West Philadelphia em 1907. A Philadelphia Rapid Transit Authority (PRT) abriu três estações ao longo da linha elevada da 63rd para a 23rd Street, ponto em que a linha operava como um metrô para a Prefeitura. Em 1908, a linha estava totalmente operacional entre 69th Street (Upper Darby) e Delaware Avenue Por acordo com as Câmaras Municipais em 1903, o PRT construiria o Metro Market Street e Elevado em seis fases: Construção de uma ferrovia elevada do rio Schuylkill através do oeste da Filadélfia até um terminal em Upper Darby, Construção de uma ponte para transportar o elevado sobre o rio Schuylkill, Construção de um metrô de quatro vias sob a Market Street, do rio Schuylkill à Prefeitura, Construção de um metrô de duas vias da Prefeitura sob a Market Street até um outlet nas ruas Front e Arch, Construção de um metrô circular sob Broad Street, Walnut Street, 8th Street, Arch Street e Broad Street para conduzir os trilhos locais em um grande circuito no distrito comercial a leste da Prefeitura, e Construção de uma ferrovia elevada na Avenida Delaware para servir as balsas do Rio Delaware. [1] Conforme observado acima, uma fase do projeto envolvia a construção de uma nova ponte ferroviária de aço que ficaria 30 metros ao norte da ponte permanente da Market Street. A construção desta ponte - chamada de Ponte do Rio Schuylkill - começou em julho de 1903 e foi concluída em agosto de 1905. [2] Assim que a ponte do rio Schuylkill estava em construção, a PRT prosseguiu com a construção do terminal da 69th Street, o término oeste do projeto, em um pasto para vacas em Upper Darby (Delaware County). A linha de trânsito rápido construída entre 69th Street e um ponto perto de Cobb's Creek não foi elevada nesta primeira seção da linha cruzando a propriedade privada na forma de "cortar e preencher" a terra que foi dragada para formar o "corte" foi usada para construir um aterro. Perto de Cobb's Creek, a linha deixaria o corte em uma inclinação para se tornar "The El" na 63rd Street. Em outubro de 1904, o PRT começou a erguer colunas e vigas na West Market Street simultaneamente em duas seções: 1) da 63rd Street leste para a 45th Street, e 2) da 45th Street até a Schuylkill River Bridge. Uma linha de bonde elétrico de duas vias continuou a operar sob o El nascente, que foi concluída em agosto de 1905. [3] Linhas de bonde que atendem os condados de Delaware, Chester e Montgomery alimentam o terminal da 69th Street. Os passageiros com destino à cidade são transferidos aqui para a Market Street Line. As estações elevadas aumentaram ao longo da linha nas ruas 36, 46 e 63. Quatro trilhos medem a nova ponte do rio Schuylkill, com os dois trilhos internos para o El e os dois trilhos externos para os bondes. Depois de cruzar o rio, os trens e os vagões de superfície do metrô entraram em um túnel subterrâneo através de um portal na 23rd Street, e os trilhos do túnel os levaram para a Prefeitura. Um terceiro trilho fornecia eletricidade para o Elevado e todos os trens e vagões de metrô dentro do túnel. Do lado de fora do túnel, cabos elétricos aéreos alimentavam os vagões de superfície do metrô. [4] “Na Prefeitura, os trilhos divergem, os dois no sentido leste e os dois no sentido oeste passando ao sul e ao norte da Prefeitura, respectivamente”, relatou o PRT em 1908. “Os trilhos para os carros de superfície terminam em um loop no lado leste da Prefeitura, passando sob os trilhos, de modo que todos os bondes do oeste da Filadélfia retornem para o oeste depois de passar pela Prefeitura. ” Os trilhos de passagem eram conectados, por meio de uma inclinação erguida entre as ruas Front e Water, à ferrovia elevada na Arch Street, de lá os trilhos levavam os trens para a Delaware Avenue e as balsas da South Street. [5] O serviço West Philadelphia da Market Street Line transportou os primeiros passageiros para a Prefeitura em março de 1907. As estações de metrô nas ruas 19 e 15 serviam os trens elevados do metrô. A estação da 19th Street também atendia os vagões de superfície do metrô. No outono de 1908, a linha Market Street Elevated and Subway estava totalmente operacional da 69th Street à Delaware Avenue, um vão que poderia ser percorrido em menos de meia hora. [6] A entrada principal da Union Station, voltada para o oeste ao longo da Front Street nesta foto de cerca de 2.000 fotos. O fotógrafo é desconhecido. Artigo por Sean Marshall e James Bow

Introdução

Hoje, a Union Station de Toronto é, de longe, o centro de transporte público mais importante da cidade. Em 2004, quando este artigo foi publicado pela primeira vez no Transit Toronto, a instalação fazia parte da rotina diária de 200.000 passageiros durante a semana, em comparação com apenas 80.000 passageiros que usavam o Aeroporto Internacional Pearson todos os dias. É uma porta de entrada para a cidade não apenas para pessoas que vêm trabalhar dos subúrbios da área metropolitana de Toronto, mas também para turistas e outros visitantes de Montreal, Ottawa, Nova York e lugares mais distantes. Quase todos os meios de transporte são representados na Union Station. Além dos trens da GO Transit e VIA Rail, há o metrô de Toronto, os ônibus que usam o terminal intermunicipal da GO Transit próximo à estação e as ligações ferroviárias para as docas de balsa ao sul da estação e, em 2015, para Pearson O próprio aeroporto internacional.

Com tantas pessoas passando pela estação todos os dias, e com planos em andamento para expandir a capacidade da estação para acomodar ainda mais passageiros no futuro, é fácil esquecer a história e a grandiosidade arquitetônica deste marco. Também é difícil acreditar que o prédio já foi planejado para demolição.

Este artigo detalha a história da Union Station de Toronto, discutindo não apenas o prédio em si, mas seus antecessores. Ele descreve como sua importância para a cidade de Toronto mudou nos quase noventa anos desde sua construção. E este artigo em particular termina no ano 2000. No momento em que este artigo foi escrito (julho de 2014), o Union Station estava passando por reformas que alteraram substancialmente sua configuração e capacidade, bem como sua aparência. Os detalhes dessas mudanças merecem um artigo exclusivo, que você terá acesso em breve. Nesse ínterim, este artigo fornece o contexto do que veio antes, para ilustrar o quão longe a estação chegou e quanto mais ela está prestes a ir.

As ferrovias chegam a Toronto

As estações Union podem ser encontradas em muitas cidades da América do Norte. O termo descreve uma estação onde várias ferrovias compartilham espaço, ao contrário de cada ferrovia ter sua própria estação central para aquela cidade. A atual Union Station de Toronto é, na verdade, a terceira dessas estações da cidade e apenas uma de uma infinidade de estações ferroviárias que foram construídas entre as ruas Parliament e Bathurst ao longo da orla marítima de Toronto.

O primeiro trem de passageiros com receita a deixar a orla de Toronto foi uma pequena locomotiva a vapor chamada "Toronto", puxando um trem de passageiros na ferrovia Ontario, Simcoe & Huron em 16 de maio de 1853. Seu destino era a cidade de Aurora. Três anos depois que a ferrovia (conhecida como Northern Railway após 1858, a linha foi estendida para Allandale em 1853 e mais tarde para Meaford) construiu sua linha para Aurora, o Grand Trunk chegou em Toronto e construiu linhas para o leste e oeste, cada uma servida por estações separadas. A estação leste, localizada na margem leste do rio Don, servia trens de Montreal, enquanto a estação oeste, localizada em Queen's Wharf perto da Bathurst Street, servia trens com destino a destinos ocidentais exóticos como Guelph e Sarnia. A linha ocidental foi inaugurada primeiro em julho de 1856, seguida pela linha oriental para Oshawa em 11 de agosto do mesmo ano. (O serviço para Montreal começaria em 27 de outubro de 1856.) A Grand Trunk Railway conectou suas linhas leste e oeste em 1857 e recebeu acesso à estação Ontário, Simcoe & amp Huron naquele ano. Em breve construiria sua própria estação a leste da estação OS&H, perto da esquina da Bay com a Front.

A primeira Union Station oficial de Toronto surgiu quando a Grand Trunk Railway abriu uma nova instalação ao público em maio de 1858 e convidou a Great Western Railway (que havia chegado no final de 1855) e a Northern Railway a se juntarem como inquilinos. O prédio estava localizado entre as ruas Simcoe e York (mais perto de York Street), um quarteirão ao sul da Front Street. A rua em frente ao prédio era chamada de Station Street. A rua permanece até hoje, muito depois das estações no local terem sido demolidas.

A primeira Union Station não duraria, no entanto. Em 1866, o Great Western decidiu construir sua própria estação e abriu uma estrutura de quatro vias perto da Yonge Street. A Northern Railway seguiu o exemplo, abrindo sua própria estação atrás da Prefeitura (agora o St. Lawrence Market) em 10 de junho de 1867. Em 1871, a Grand Trunk Railway decidiu demolir a primeira Union Station, e uma estação temporária atendia os passageiros até julho 1 de 1873, quando Grand Trunk abriu sua própria estação permanente no local. Era uma bela estrutura, com três torres dominando o edifício e a torre central (a mais alta) com um relógio. Tinha um galpão de trem fechado com três trilhos, que o Grand Trunk considerou adequado para uma cidade de 65.000 habitantes.

O Grand Trunk, o Northern, o Great Western e o Toronto & amp Nipissing Railway cada um tinha suas próprias estações até a década de 1880. A consolidação das companhias ferroviárias (GWR no GTR, o Credit Valley e Toronto, Gray & amp Bruce no Pacífico canadense) resultou em alguma redução desse confuso conjunto de estações. A estação do Great Western perto da Yonge Street fechou para trens em 1882 após a aquisição da Grand Trunk. Assim, a instalação de três vias da Grand Trunk tornou-se oficialmente a segunda Union Station de Toronto (embora, tecnicamente, tenha sido uma "união" desde o início, já que o Toronto, Gray e Bruce usavam a via norte do galpão do trem). Quanto à antiga estação Great Western, ela se tornou o terminal de frete alfandegado do Grand Trunk em 1882, e continuou até o GTR abrir uma nova instalação perto da Simcoe Street em 1904, quando a antiga estação se tornou um terminal de atacado de alimentos até 1952, quando o prédio foi consumido pelo fogo.

A necessidade de uma instalação moderna

O Grand Trunk renovou as instalações no início da década de 1890, quando foi reaberto em 1896, e ostentava um prédio de escritórios românico de sete andares na Front Street que se tornou a entrada principal da instalação, bem como uma galeria sobre a Station Street que levava a um prédio de 80 - sala de espera quadrada de pés. O galpão de trem do norte foi reconstruído e um novo galpão de trem de três vias foi construído ao sul da estação de 1873. Mesmo assim, não demorou muito para que a segunda Union Station começasse a operar em sua capacidade máxima. Com o fim do século 19, um novo terminal ferroviário foi proposto para aliviar o congestionamento. Infelizmente, nada resultou da proposta.

Isso mudou, no entanto, em 9 de abril de 1904. Naquele dia, um grande incêndio varreu o centro de Toronto, destruindo virtualmente todos os prédios em uma área delimitada pelas ferrovias, Wellington Street, Yonge Street e York Street. O único edifício salvo na área foi o Queen's Hotel (localizado no local do atual Royal York Hotel). Esse evento, embora trágico, despertou a necessidade e o desejo de reconstruir e ajudou as ferrovias a montar o terreno para uma nova estação.

Em 1905, foram feitos planos para uma nova Union Station e um viaduto para separar os trens do tráfego pesado e comercial entre o porto e a Front Street. Para conseguir isso, a Toronto Terminals Railway foi incorporada pelo Parlamento canadense em 13 de julho de 1906. A Canadian Pacific Railway e a Grand Trunk (mais tarde Canadian National Railways) possuíam cada uma metade da nova empresa. O TTR recebeu a propriedade de todos os trilhos entre a Bathurst Street no oeste e o rio Don no leste (30,36 milhas de trilhos no total) e a construção da Union Station tornou-se responsabilidade do TTR.

Union Station, vista de Front e York, voltada para sudeste, por volta de 2000. O fotógrafo é desconhecido.

Debate e mais debate

Apesar disso, ainda demorou nove anos para os vários governos, ferrovias e proprietários de imóveis chegarem a um acordo sobre uma proposta. Uma equipe de arquitetos, incluindo a firma de Montreal de G.A. Ross e R.H. MacDonald, bem como Hugh Jones do CPR e John M. Lyle de Toronto prepararam o projeto da estação. Em 26 de abril de 1914, o projeto da Union Station foi finalmente aprovado pelo Conselho de Comissários das Ferrovias e, em 26 de setembro de 1914, poucas semanas após o início da Primeira Guerra Mundial, a construção foi iniciada. A escassez de guerra atrasou a construção, mas em 1920 o prédio estava pronto para ser inaugurado. No entanto, o viaduto não foi concluído. Disputas sobre se os trilhos deveriam passar por cima ou por baixo das ruas de Toronto mantiveram a nova Union Station fechada por anos. Finalmente, em 6 de agosto de 1927, a estação foi oficialmente inaugurada pelo visitante Príncipe de Gales (a estação realmente entrou em uso cinco dias depois, em 11 de agosto). Assim que a nova estação foi inaugurada, a velha Union Station no sopé da Simcoe Street foi fechada e eventualmente demolida.

Mesmo com a inauguração da estação, o viaduto ainda estava em construção. Os passageiros ainda tinham que usar as antigas plataformas da antiga Union Station para embarcar em seus trens. Uma ponte temporária de madeira da nova estação para os trilhos da velha estação foi erguida e usada até que o viaduto fosse concluído (trilhos 1-6 em janeiro de 1930 e trilhos 7-12 em dezembro de 1930). Mesmo assim, a transferência não foi concluída. Em 14 de junho de 1916, o CPR inaugurou a estação North Toronto na Yonge Street em sua linha principal pela cidade, e seus trens continuaram a usar essa estação até 1930, antes de mudar para a Union.

Dois anos após a inauguração da Union Station, seu marco complementar - o Royal York Hotel - recebia hóspedes. Na época, o Royal York Hotel, construído pela Canadian Pacific Railway para servir aos viajantes, era o maior hotel do Império Britânico. Até hoje, continua a funcionar como o grande hotel ferroviário de Toronto. Substituiu o mais modesto Queen's Hotel, que ficava no mesmo local.

Um tour pela Union Station no início

Desde 2010, extensas reformas prometem alterar significativamente o uso do Union Station, embora tenha havido cuidado para preservar seu significado histórico e arquitetônico. Desde o início, a Union Station era conhecida por ser uma joia arquitetônica: uma gigantesca estrutura Beaux Arts situada no lado sul da Front Street entre as ruas Bay e York. O prédio tem 752 pés de comprimento de leste a oeste e tem uma altura média de 87 pés. Seu bloco central possui 22 colunas de pedra, cada uma com 12 metros de altura e pesando mais de 75 toneladas. O edifício é composto por porções de calcário Indiana, Queenstone e Bedford, sendo que esta última compreende as colunas.

A Union Station tem um galpão de trem em seu lado sul que inicialmente se estendia por doze trilhos. Escritórios foram construídos nas alas leste e oeste da estrutura. Uma estrada deprimida separava a Union Station da Front Street como um fosso. Isso foi inicialmente usado para entregas de táxi. Os clientes da Front Street entraram na Union Station por uma ponte larga e curta sobre este fosso, em frente às portas principais da estação.

O fosso ao redor da Union Station, voltado para oeste em direção à York Street, por volta de 2000. O fotógrafo é desconhecido.

Entrando na Union Station, os clientes encontram a peça central da Union Station: seu Salão Principal. Com 250 pés de comprimento e 84 pés de largura, o teto arqueado chega a 23 metros acima do chão e é decorado com ladrilhos Gustavino vitrificados. Este espaço impressionante apresenta detalhes em pedra esculpida, com grandes janelas compostas em arco nas extremidades leste e oeste do corredor. Três quartos do caminho até a parede, você vê os nomes de várias cidades canadenses gravados em pedra - possíveis destinos de passageiros que embarcaram da Union Station em 1921 (consulte o final deste artigo para obter mais detalhes). As paredes do Grande Salão são feitas de pedra Zumbro do Missouri. A pedra reflete a luz sutilmente e ilumina a aparência do espaço.

Depois de comprar suas passagens no Salão Principal, os passageiros que desejassem embarcar em seus trens seguiriam para o sul através do Salão Principal e seguiriam por uma rampa para o saguão de embarque. Colunas largas aqui sustentam os trilhos e trens acima. Escadas de cada lado do saguão levam os passageiros até as plataformas.

Os passageiros dos trens que chegam à Union Station descem por diferentes lances de escadas das plataformas para os corredores de cada lado do saguão de embarque. Esses corredores conduziam ao norte, antes de fazer uma curva fechada e se encontrar sob a rampa que conectava o Grande Salão ao Saguão de Partidas. Dali, eles acessaram o saguão de desembarque, uma área bem menor. Aqui, as pessoas podiam sair da Union Station por rampas para a Front Street ou por duas escadarias de pedra que levavam de volta ao Salão Principal. Uma exceção era a trilha 1. Localizada mais próxima do Salão Principal, ela era acessada diretamente do próprio prédio da estação.

Union Station também ostentava extensas instalações postais. Na época, a maior parte da correspondência era transportada de trem. Não só havia um correio público que ocupava grande parte da extremidade leste do edifício, como o Toronto Postal Delivery Building estava localizado ao sul da estação e apresentava um túnel sob os trilhos usados ​​pelos funcionários para acessá-lo. Além disso, havia também dois conjuntos de vias de transmissão, vias fechadas construídas em ambos os lados da York Street e da Bay Street, à medida que passavam por baixo do viaduto ferroviário atrás da Union Station. Estes foram inicialmente utilizados para receber cargas em carretas ou caminhões, para serem trazidas até os trens acima. À medida que a importância desses bondes diminuía, eles foram bloqueados e esquecidos - um fato que a GO Transit aproveitou ao renovar a Union Station décadas depois. Restos dos serviços de correio da Union Station podem ser vistos até hoje. Observe que um dos nomes gravados na agência postal (localizada sobre o que agora é o atual GO Bay Concourse) é Franklin, referindo-se a Benjamin Franklin, que foi vice-chefe do correio geral para as colônias britânicas da América do Norte de 1753 a 1774.

As janelas de vidro composto, mostrando alguns dos corredores dentro delas. Este fica no lado oeste do Grande Salão, por volta de 2000. O fotógrafo é desconhecido.

Os escritórios localizados dentro da Union Station raramente são vistos pelo público em geral. A Toronto Terminals Railway teve seus escritórios na ala oeste do prédio até depois que a GO Transit assumiu as operações da empresa. Os escritórios e corredores existem do segundo ao quinto andar e circundam o Grande Salão. As grandes janelas compostas em arco nas extremidades leste e oeste do Grande Salão são, na verdade, uma série de corredores que conectam as partes sul e norte dessas alas. Esses corredores não têm apenas paredes de vidro que abrangem as janelas que o público vê, mas também pisos e tetos de vidro. As pessoas no Salão Principal podem ocasionalmente ver as silhuetas vagas de funcionários de escritório passando por esses corredores envidraçados. Corredores semelhantes com piso de vidro existem nos dois arcos de entrada que saem da Front Street.

O telhado do Grande Salão, por volta de 2000. Foto de Sanj Arora.

Os corredores circundam o Salão Principal e têm janelas que se abrem do lado de fora da Union Station. O objetivo principal desses corredores é aquecer e resfriar a estação. Projetado na era anterior aos condicionadores de ar mecânicos, esse recurso ainda é eficaz para moderar a temperatura do Salão Principal. Nos meses de verão, uma circulação é iniciada dentro de corredores circundantes que resfriam o Salão Principal. No inverno, os corredores fornecem um isolamento de ar, mantendo o Salão Principal aquecido. Os corredores circundantes percorrem o segundo, terceiro e quarto andares da Union Station. Um quinto, sexto e sétimo nível existe no lado sul da estação. O sétimo andar é uma extensão ampla e tem sido usado como campo de tiro para treinar policiais ferroviários.

Abaixo do Salão Principal e do saguão de desembarque, uma rede de túneis de serviço permite que o pessoal da estação mova a bagagem de e para os trens que chegam e partem, bem como manter a própria estação em operação. Elevadores de carga conectavam essas áreas de serviço aos trilhos, e carrinhos motorizados que datam de 1910 ainda são usados ​​para transportar bagagens de e para os trens da VIA. Os níveis do subsolo abrigam instalações de aquecimento, ventilação e coleta de esgoto. Uma subestação de energia, capaz de suprir as necessidades de uma cidade de bom tamanho, também está localizada no subsolo, assim como carpintaria, encanamento, elétrica, máquinas e oficinas de pintura projetadas para atender às necessidades exclusivas da Union Station.

Depressão e guerra. Carro e avião

É irônico que a inauguração da tão atrasada Union Station de Toronto tenha ocorrido apenas alguns anos antes do início da Grande Depressão, exatamente quando a construção havia começado no início da Primeira Guerra Mundial. Depois de gastar tanto tempo e esforço construindo um terminal ferroviário unificado para Toronto, a Canadian National e a Canadian Pacific se viram enfrentando uma redução no mercado de cargas e passageiros. Alguns serviços de passageiros CN e CP foram agrupados, com rotas anteriormente concorrentes gerenciadas como uma só para economizar dinheiro. Este acordo nas corridas Toronto-Montreal e Toronto-Ottawa durou até 31 de outubro de 1965.

A Segunda Guerra Mundial proporcionou uma trégua da perda de tráfego de passageiros para o carro e ônibus, no entanto, e a estação viu muitos militares se afastando de amigos e entes queridos a caminho de suas obrigações no exterior. Após a Segunda Guerra Mundial, o declínio das ferrovias continuou, com mais passageiros sendo afastados pelo aumento das viagens aéreas. Com o Aeroporto de Malton, na periferia da cidade de Toronto, ganhando importância cada vez maior, agregando voos para mais e mais destinos, a lucratividade do transporte ferroviário de passageiros tornou-se cada vez mais duvidosa. A Union Station estava começando uma transformação de serviço, afastando-se dos viajantes de longa distância e mais para os passageiros da área de Toronto.

Em 30 de março de 1954, a linha do metrô Yonge foi inaugurada ao norte do prédio da estação, substituindo os bondes que serviam à Union Station desde sua inauguração. A passagem original da estação principal para a estação de metrô cruzava sob o fosso. Os passageiros do nível de desembarque desceriam um lance de escadas e, depois de passar por baixo da estrada do fosso, voltariam mais ou menos ao seu nível original por uma longa rampa, alcançando a mesma passagem que as escadas que desciam da calçada sul de Front Street. A partir daqui, eram alguns passos até o saguão de entrada da estação de metrô. Adições subsequentes à rede TTC, incluindo a linha de metrô da Universidade de Union a St. George em 1963, mantiveram o status da Union Station como o principal foco da rede de metrô de Toronto.

GO Transit Begins

Foi no início dos anos 1960 que a Union Station deixou de ser basicamente um terminal para viagens de trem de longa distância e começou a assumir um novo papel como um hub para o tráfego de trens urbanos de curta distância. A Canadian National havia iniciado um punhado de viagens para a cidade, mas não tiveram o sucesso que a empresa esperava. O governo provincial de Ontário, no entanto, viu a necessidade de melhorar o serviço de transporte regional. O desenvolvimento que o governo do Metropolitan Toronto foi criado (em 1954) para conter começou a se espalhar para além dos limites do Metro. Na década de 1960, a Província de Ontário examinou a questão em seu Metropolitan Toronto and Region Transportation Study (MTARTS). Desta vez, eles não estavam dispostos a expandir os limites do Metro para conter o desenvolvimento descontrolado, mas perceberam que sem uma autoridade regional coordenadora para gerenciar o crescimento, o tráfego de passageiros em Toronto aumentaria - especialmente ao longo das rodovias de propriedade da província. Para evitar a necessidade de expandir o Queen Elizabeth Way e o 401, a província criou o GO (Governo de Ontário) Transit em 1967 e estabeleceu um serviço de transporte regional de Oakville a Pickering ao longo da linha ferroviária Lakeshore da CN.

Ao contrário das viagens de passageiros da CN, o serviço de trem GO foi um grande sucesso, e logo a linha Lakeshore GO estava operando sete dias por semana, com trens chegando a cada dez minutos durante o horário de pico.

Planos de desenvolvimento ameaçam Union Station

Despite the emergence of commuter rail, Union Station's importance continued to wane through the 1960s and into the 1970s. With the opening of MacMillan Yard near Concord, Ontario (in today's City of Vaughan), freight services were gradually removed from the railway lands surrounding Toronto's Union Station and relocated to the edge of the city. The amount of land freed up by this process, and the fact that Toronto found itself in the 1960s cut off from the waterfront by a quarter mile of railway yard and expressway, resulted in a number of redevelopment proposals. Some of these plans called for the demolition of Union Station.

In one such plan, a new, intermodal Union Station was to be built south of the existing structure, much of it underground, to be used by both trains and buses. The area to the south of Front Street from Yonge to Spadina was to be completely redeveloped, with tall office towers being the order of the day. Canadian National and Canadian Pacific planned to remove all of their tracks, save for the tracks required to serve the new railway station. They would reap a windfall by building and renting out or selling the new office towers. Their proposal also included a retail mall, a convention centre and a new telecommunications and observation tower.

The proposal was unpopular in many quarters. A number of Toronto residents objected to the demolition of the beautiful Union Station structure. In acknowledgement of this sentiment, some redevelopment plans had called for the retention of the Great Hall, while other plans called for the entire structure to be retained, but repurposed as a shopping concourse. Few, if any, plans called for Union Station to remain as an operating railway station.

A redevelopment plan called Metro Centre, proposed by Canadian National and calling for the demolition of all buildings on the south side of Front Street, including Union Station, was approved by Metropolitan Toronto City Council in December 1970. The announcement enraged Torontonians, who were shocked by the potential loss of such an impressive structure. In the same grassroots movement that successfully protested against the Spadina Expressway, voters defeated many of the council politicians in the next election (December 1972). The new reform-minded council that came to power included future Toronto mayors David Crombie and John Sewell. The new council overturned the former City Council's decision and saved Union Station from destruction. Union Station was declared a national historic site in 1975.

Portions of the Metro Centre plan were built, albeit in a modified form. The CN Tower started construction soon after the Metro Centre plan was approved, and opened to the public in 1977. The Metro Toronto Convention Centre opened years later. The SkyDome (today known as the Rogers Centre), built in 1989 on part of the railway lands, was an addition to the plan, and part of the many rewrites of the development proposals made for the railway lands throughout the 1980s before serious construction began in the late 1990s. The construction of office towers, condominiums and entertainment space that now exist south of the railway tracks leading into Union Station was cobbled together in a series of agreements that were finalized in the late 1980s. In the end, much of the railway lands was redeveloped, leaving less than a dozen tracks leading into Union Station from the west and less than 15 from the east, as well as space for staging yards near Bathurst Street and Cherry Street. Although Union Station was successfully preserved, this significant reduction in the number of tracks would produce difficulties GO Transit's managers and planners would have to deal with in the years to come.

GO Transit Expansion and the Arrival of VIA Rail

As debate swirled about the future of Union Station, GO Transit quietly expanded its use of Union Station. In 1967, part of the current arrivals level had been set aside for a GO Concourse to handle passengers arriving and departing from GO trains. Tracks 2 and 3 were reserved solely for GO Trains, while Track One was set aside for CN's Rapido and Turbo Trains to Ottawa and Montreal. Then GO Transit began to expand, quickly taking over Tracks 1, 4 and 5. Soon after its second line to Georgetown (renamed Kitchener after December 19, 2011) opened in 1974, routes to Milton, Stouffville, Richmond Hill and Bradford followed. Very quickly, it became apparent that this arrangement was insufficient for GO's needs.

Despite CN's experiments with high-speed train travel, Canada's railways were finding passenger trains more and more of a burden. In 1978, the Canadian government took over all passenger services from Canadian National and Canadian Pacific, uniting them under the banner of VIA Rail, a name CN had been marketing its passenger services under since 1976, and which had been a CN subsidiary since 1977. VIA initially used most of the station, with arrivals and departures handled through the main concourse, but soon found itself outpaced by GO Transit and its increasing network. Quickly GO Transit outgrew its use of tracks 1 to 5 and acquired track 12 from VIA operations. It later took over track 13, located outside at the southern edge of the train shed, which CN and VIA Rail had been using through the 1970s.

In 1979, the GO concourse was opened in the east wing of the station, in the part of Union Station formerly operated by the Canadian Post Office, conveniently closer to the subway station than the main station is. This change also helped get GO out of VIA's hair, allowing the parts of the main station (especially the Arrivals Concourse) to be returned to their original uses. The new concourse was on the same level as the arrivals part of the main station, and the depressed road. Accordingly, a direct path between the subway and the new concourse was now provided as a level crossing of this road (which is no longer in heavy use, save for storing rental cars for the Hertz and National car rental establishments inside the station), partially protected from weather with a roof. This access via the GO station also replaced the original tunnel between the main station and subway station, which still exists, but is not open to the public.

The GO concourse was built to handle a large number of passengers and has not been modified extensively since its opening. At the southern end of the GO concourse, a maze of stairs, escalators and elevators (added later) take passengers to tracks one through five of Union Station, and all trains except for those bound for Milton and Bradford. The GO Concourse acts as a food court as well as a waiting facility. Among its tenants are Country Style donuts, McDonald's, Laura Secord and Cinnabon. The rental income provides GO Transit with hundreds of thousands of dollars annually, as the huge amount of foot traffic through the facility makes those locations very valuable.

The front entrance to Union Station, looking east, circa 2000. Note the lettering on the cornice (see below). Photos by Sanj Arora

Changes Made to Union Station

As the railway lands slowly redeveloped, changes occurred to Union Station to reflect these new destinations. When the SkyDome was built near the CN Tower in the late 1980s, a long elevated walkway called the Skywalk was constructed from the west end of the Great Hall to near the domed stadium. The walkway crosses York Street by a bridge, from which a door leads directly to track 1, for the convenience of some GO Transit passengers. The walkway continues past this door and travels between Station Street and the railway tracks to Simcoe Street, where it turns sharply south and crosses the railway tracks before ending at the base of the CN Tower. Used to seeing far more walk-through traffic in the early days of the SkyDome, this walkway featured a number of fast food and sports collectible outlets, but these have all been unceremoniously closed. Similarly, in the early days of the SkyDome, special GO Trains were scheduled to depart Union Station a few minutes after the game for Milton, Georgetown and Richmond Hill, but these too have faded along with the Blue Jays' attendance figures.

Other connections were built between Union Station and other facilities, including the Metro Convention Centre, which can be accessed directly from the Skywalk or from the west end of the lower level's Arrivals Concourse, via the moat and a tunnel beneath York Street and an escalator up to Front Street.

In 1990, Union Station added another transport mode to its growing list of functions, as in that year, the new 604 Harbourfront streetcar line launched, operating from Union Station to Spadina Avenue via Queens Quay. Up to that point, Union Station had had no streetcar service since 1963, when the Dupont streetcar was replaced by the 6 BAY bus. In 1997, the streetcar line was renamed Spadina, and extended northward to Spadina station and in 2000, Union Station began playing host to a second streetcar line, one running to the CNE grounds via Queen's Quay and Fleet Street.

In 1996, the character of Union Station was again jeopardised. At that time, the management of the Toronto Maple Leafs considered building a new sports facility on top of the train shed directly behind the Great Hall. The Great Hall was to be used as the main entrance. The Toronto Raptors were to share this facility, and construction of their sports facility at the old Postal Depot at the foot of Bay Street would be cancelled and that site turned into a intercity bus station. When the deal fell through, the Maple Leafs bought the Raptors and completed work on the Raptors' arena in the old Toronto Postal Delivery Building. The Air Canada Centre, as it is now called, is linked to the GO Concourse via the tunnel beneath the tracks that had been used by postal staff. In a way, Union Station has still become the gateway into the Maple Leafs' new home as many of the hockey and basketball fans take the subway or the GO Train to and from the game.

A New Century and Massive Changes to Come

By the year 2000, Toronto's Union Station was a protected landmark and a vital component of the city's transportation network. Its historic and architectural significance were revered, and it was a big part of the working day of hundreds of thousands of Toronto commuters. However, even bigger changes were to come.

Even in the late 1990s, Toronto city planners knew that the current crowds were going to look small compared to the demands that were forecast for the decades to follow. Toronto was a rapidly growing city, and the Greater Toronto Area was expanding. The GTA's public transit networks needed to grow to keep up, and this was going to put additional pressure on Union Station. At the same time, the structure was getting older, and in need of renovations in order to preserve its appearance and its usefulness. As a result, the City of Toronto entered into negotiations with the federal government, the Province of Ontario and private interests to work out a plan on how to expand the use of Union Station in the years to come.

The deal worked out wasn't without controversy, and it has since meant significant disruption for the hundreds of thousands of commuters who use Union Station every day. However, it has altered the look of Union Station while preserving its significant architectural components, and it looks set to serve crowds that the original architects could not have imagined. These changes may also give birth to a new satellite station at the edge of the downtown core.

These changes and others will be detailed in the next article, covering the history of Union Station into the 21st century.

The clock above the information kiosk in the centre of the Great Hall. Photo by Sanj Arora.

Union Station Trivia

  • The old arrivals information place was on one's left just as one headed out of the Great Hall and down to the departures concourse. It was marked by a green ball lamp, while the porters' stand was marked by a red one.
  • Before the new information kiosk was erected, the centre of the Great Hall was occupied by a square stand, each side of which displayed the scheduled arrival or departure times of all trains in illuminated lettering. (Each train had a black plastic strip with clear or white lettering on it, fitted into a black frame backlit by fluorescent lights.) From its styling, this information stand obviously was not an original feature of the station. Did it replace an earlier manned kiosk, or a display of the same information using older technology (just printed notices, say), or something else altogether? If you know, tell us!
  • Since the information stand and its predecessors are/were in the center of a wide expanse of floor, support is required for them on the level below. Hence there is a cluster of four pillars set relatively close together. When the movie Silver Streak (1976) was being filmed, one scene required a newsstand in Kansas City, and the space between these pillars was where it was put. Years later, a real newsstand was put there.

About Those Carved Place Names.

North side, west wall: PRINCE·RUPERT
North wall, west to east along the wall (one line of carving): EDMONTON · SASKATOON · WINNIPEG · PORT-ARTHUR · NORTH-BAY · SARNIA · LONDON · TORONTO · OTTAWA · SHERBROOKE · LÉVIS · MONCTON ·
North side, east wall: · HALIFAX ·
South side, east wall: · ST. JOHN ·
South side, east to west along the wall (one line of carving): · FREDERICTON · QUEBEC · MONTREAL · HAMILTON · WINDSOR · SAULT ST. MARIE · SUDBURY · FORT-WILLIAM · REGINA · MOOSE JAW · CALGARY ·
South side, west wall: VANCOUVER

  • All places on the north list were then served by CNR.
  • All places on the south list were then served by CPR (of course, many of the places were on both railways).
  • This is appropriate, because the relevant CNR routes are mostly north of the corresponding CPR routes.
  • Saint John refers to Saint John, New Brunswick. When Union Station was built, Newfoundland was not yet part of Canada, and the Newfoundland Railway was not owned and operated by Canadian National.
  • All places in each list are in their actual east-west geographical order, except North Bay / Sarnia and Sault Ste. Marie / Sudbury.
  • Sault Ste. Marie is misspelled, unless that spelling was then considered correct in English.
  • Some of the two-word place name are hyphenated, which definitely was not normal style then (or now). Others are not.
  • Centered dots ( · ) are used between place names. Presumably for space reasons, their use at the ends of the lists and where the lists turn corners is inconsistent, and PRINCE · RUPERT is written with a centered dot instead of a hyphen.
  • As these place names are to represent some of the places people could reach from Union Station, it is ironic that one of those places is Toronto itself.
  • Of these places, Saint John, Fredericton, Lévis(*), Sherbrooke, Port Arthur (Thunder Bay), Fort William (Thunder Bay), Regina and Moose Jaw are no longer served by VIA Rail, or any other passenger train service.
  • As of the year 2000, four of the listed cities still had train service, but by carriers other than VIA Rail. These include Hamilton (GO Transit), North Bay (Ontario Northland), Sault Ste. Marie (Algoma Central -- now part of CN) and Calgary (the Rocky Mountaineer, CPR Tours). North Bay lost Ontario Northland service on September 28, 2012. Sault Ste. Marie almost lost the Algoma Central early in 2014, although it won a temporary reprieve.

Union Station 1929-2000 Image Archive

The second Union Station opened just west of York Street on July 1, 1893. This photo is courtesy the Toronto Archives.

Here we see Union Station in its early stages of construction, on April 12, 1917. This photograph was part of a set commissioned by the architects of the project. This image is courtesy the City of Toronto.

An aerial view of Union Station, looking southeast from York Street. The station is largely complete, but does not look to be open. Between 1920 and 1927, the station remained closed while the City of Toronto and the railways argued if the tracks should be placed in a tunnel or a viaduct. The photographer is unknown and the image is courtesy the Toronto Archives.

This image of the columns of the Front Street entrance to Union Station, circa 1922, is courtesy the Toronto Archives. It originally appeared in the Toronto Globe on August 15, 1922, with the caption "SILENT PILLARED MAGNIFICENCE-No, gentle reader, it / is not a mausoleum, but an entrance to Toronto's new Union / Station, into which the trains have not yet run."

While Union Station did not open until 1927, parts of it were still functioning. This image, courtesy the Toronto Archives, was originally printed in the June 21, 1924 edition of the Globe, with the caption, "SOME WAIT FOR MAIL AND OTHERS FOR JOBS b.: Scene at the Postoffice in the new Union Station yesterday afternoon. Job-seekers who are offering their services as strike-breakers are / seen sitting on the wall in foreground, while beyond is a queue of business people calling for important letters which are held up by the strike of postal employees."

The Great Hall of Union Station, around March 17, 1924. The station was largely complete, and opened to the public for an open house, but it would be another few years before train service operated out of the building. Photo courtesy the Toronto Archives and the Toronto Railway Museum.

The clock in the Great Hall, on March 17, 1924. This photograph is courtesy the Toronto Archives and the Toronto Railway Museum.

The waiting area at the west end of Union Station, with benches, on March 17, 1924. This photograph is courtesy the Toronto Archives and the Toronto Railway Museum.

A lunch counter in the nearly-finished Union Station on March 17, 1924. Image courtesy the Toronto Archives and the Toronto Railway Museum.

A view of the rear of Union Station, under construction in 1926. Note the York Street bridge and the level crossings on Bay Street. The photographer is unknown and the image is courtesy the Toronto Archives.

The basement departure concourse of Union Station in 1966, during a rail strike. Photo courtesy the Toronto Public Library.

A GO train of single-level coaches bound for Pickering waits at Track 3 of Union Station on August 5, 1978, while signs helpfully identify the train's destination. The photographer is unknown.

Lewis Swanson took this picture of the GO Transit fare gates at the (then) new GO concourse at the east end of Union Station on September 11, 1981. These gates were removed when GO adopted a proof-of-payment system. This image is courtesy the John Knight collection.

Another view of GO Transit's Union Station fare gates on September 11, 1981. Photo by Lewis Swanson, courtesy the John Knight collection.

A view of Union Station's Great Hall, looking south from one of the passageways in the upper floors. This 1999 photograph was taken by James Bow.

The entrance to the Skywalk, looking west towards York Street. The photographer of this circa 2000 shot is unknown.

The entrance to the departures level and station platforms, as seen from the Great Hall, looking south. The photographer of this circa 2000 shot is unknown.

The Union Station departures area, circa 2000, looking at one of the stairs leading to one of the platforms. The photographer is unknown.

The corridor leading from the station platforms to the Arrivals concourse, circa 2000. The photographer is unknown.

A view of Toronto Union Station's Great Hall, looking east, circa 2000. The photographer is unknown.

Waiting area at the west side of the station, looking southwest, circa 2000. The Skywalk was added in 1989 and links the station to the SkyDome, the Metro Convention Centre and the CN Tower. The photographer is unknown.

Referências

  • Bebout, Richard The Open Gate: Toronto Union Station Toronto: Peter Martin Associates, 1972
  • Sewell, John The Shape of the City Toronto: University of Toronto Press, 1993
  • GO Transit, Route Map to the Future, 2000

Special thanks to Mark Brader, Tom Box, Derek Boles and Patricia Bow for their kind assistance with edits and corrections to this article.

Welcome to Transit Toronto! This is an information site dedicated to public transportation in Toronto, maintained by transit enthusiasts for transit enthuasiasts. This is NOT the official website of the Toronto Transit Commission, Metrolinx or any other transit provider or government agency. To access the official websites of these agencies, consult this page here.


The Old City Hall Subway Station

(*I write these articles because I love the city and the incredible stories behind each grand structure. You can help support my photography by purchasing an archival print of the City Hall Station for your home. Photos with links below them are for sale.)

The once grand City Hall subway station now sleeps quietly under City Hall Park. Originally opened in 1904, this ornate station was the showpiece of the new New York City subway system, with arches and vaulted ceilings, elegant Guastavino and colored glass tiling, skylights, and brass chandeliers. The opening was a huge and novel event:

“The night took on a carnival atmosphere, like New Year’s Eve. Many couples celebrated in style by putting on their best clothes, going out to dinner, and then taking their first subway ride together. Some people spent the entire evening on the trains, going back and forth from 145th street to City Hall for hours. Reveling in the sheer novelty of the underground, these riders wanted to soak up its unfamiliar sights and sensations for as long as possible.” (Clifton Hood, 722 Miles: The Building Of The Subways [via Forgotten New York.])

Despite its beauty, the City Hall subway station was never very busy. In the final year of its use, it only handled about 600 passengers a day, due to the much busier Brooklyn Bridge station which was close by. The station finally closed for good on New Year’s Eve in 1945 when, to handle increased ridership, new longer trains were created with doors that were an unsafe distance from the extremely curved track of the station.

The station has laid dormant ever since. It is eerily silent, rusty and water damaged, but none of this betrays its exquisiteness. There has been a lot of talk about opening the station as part of the City’s Transit Museum, but it is within City Hall’s protected zone, and so worries about terrorism have kept it closed. For now, you can view the station by staying on the 6 train as it loops around at its southernmost point, or you can sign up for occasional tours run by the New York Transit Museum.


Retrofitting Rochester: Subway station

The intersection of Exchange and Broad had existed for only 14 years when this photograph was taken in 1938. Before it marked the meeting of two roadways, the site formed the juncture of Exchange Street with the Erie Canal.

A number of businesses overlooked the canal from the intersection's northeast corner over the course of the 19th and early 20th centuries, including the Rochester Union and Advertiser, the White Wire Works Co. and C.J. Connolly's Bicycles.

But as bicycles gave way to automobiles in the early 1900s, so too did the canal give way to a more modern transportation thoroughfare.

Deemed ineffectual for commercial service, the narrow waterway was rerouted from downtown Rochester in 1918. The following year, the city bought the abandoned portion of the canal bed to repurpose it for a rapid transit rail system.

The "roof" for much of the downtown section of the resulting subway line opened as Broad Street in 1924, and the kiosk seen here was established as one of two entrances to the City Hall station.

Hurried masses rushed through the Broad Street kiosk to partake in the inaugural public voyage departing from the underground station on Dec. 1, 1927. Upon descending the depot's stairs, eager riders were greeted by a ticket window, a waiting room, restrooms and a baggage room for checked bags. Once aboard, passengers enjoyed a quick jaunt to the system's eastern reaches at the Rowlands station in Brighton before doubling back via downtown to the western end of the line at Driving Park Avenue.

Though the subway's opening day drew considerable crowds, it took a while for the system to gain significant ridership. An initiative launched in 1938 seeking to boost the subway's patronage and its public image led to a new fleet of railcars and extensive station and railway repairs. The City Hall station's two kiosks and others in the downtown core were adorned with bright signs declaring "Use your Subway for Speed and Safety."

The effort proved effective. By the end of the 1930s, the subway was servicing 1.5 million passengers a year, a figure that steadily increased to over 5 million when usage peaked in 1946.

Though Rochesterians made good use of the rapid rail during World War II and the immediate post-war years, most riders switched back to driving their own cars by decade's end. This decline in patronage, combined with the city's desire to create a feeder highway to the recently completed New York State Thruway, spelled the demise of the Rochester Industrial and Rapid Transit Rail System.

The subway's last official run left the City Hall station at 12:54 a.m. July 1, 1956, after which the vehicle was parked in a car barn and the system's stations were locked up.

The site as it appears today. (Photo: CARLOS ORTIZ/@cfortiz_dandc/ / STAFF PHOTOGRAPHER)

With the removal of the subway and its kiosks, the focus of activity on the northwest corner of Broad Street and Exchange Boulevard shifted entirely from the rumblings underground to the magnificent Times Square Building that continues to define the intersection today.


Delft City Hall and Train Station / Mecanoo

Descrição do texto fornecida pelos arquitetos. Arriving in Delft is an unforgettable experience. From the outset, Mecanoo’s idea was to design a station that makes it clear to visitors that they have arrived in Delft. The station, in combination with the new city hall, sits atop a new train tunnel built in place of the old concrete viaduct that divided the city in two since 1965. Coming up the escalators, the impressive ceiling with the historic map of Delft unfolds. When you look outside, you see the city and the old station as a contemporary version of Johannes Vermeer’s painting 'View of Delft’.

Interweaving past and future
The city of Delft reflects its past: the multitude of historic buildings and canals the ‘Prinsenstad’ city, closely connected to the Dutch Royal Family and, of course, the world famous Delftware ceramic factories. On the other hand, the Delft University of Technology is at the forefront of technical innovation. The character of Delft, epitomised in this combination of past and future, was the starting point for the design.

Delft Blue
A vaulted ceiling features an enormous historic 1877 map of Delft and its surroundings, connecting the station with the city hall. Within the station hall, walls and columns are adorned with a contemporary re-interpretation of Delft Blue tiles. You can walk directly from the station into the city hall. The glass skin of the building is designed to reflect the Dutch skies. The panels of fused glass with lens-like spheres reference a vernacular window design that can be seen throughout the historic city. The combination and rhythm of open panels of high performance glass and closed fused glass panels enable a high degree of energy efficiency.

Contextually compact
Throughout the design process the building volume has been shaved and reformed to create a compact, highly efficient building form. The lowered roof lines at the corners provide a gradual transition towards the existing small-scale development of the Delft city centre and the adjacent Wester Quarter. The building connects the historic inner city on the east side of the railway tunnel with the residential neighbourhoods located to the west, realigning the centre of Delft. Incisions in the glass volume of the city hall building form a pattern of alleyways and courtyards, which are themselves inspired by the intricate structure of Delft.


Photo: Paul Lowry

Since the beginning, the MTA tracks have played host to any number of scary stories, real and imagined. We’ve dug up these five strange tales.

The Ghost Train of Astor Place

When traveling alone through Astor Place station, be sure to double check your train before boarding. It may not be the 6 arriving.

Several people claim to have seen a mysterious spectral train, dating back to the opening days of the station, in 1904. Those who have peeked inside say that this strange car is lavishly furnished, with leather couches, silk curtains, and even a wood-burning stove.

One could easily dismiss these claims if not for the uncanny resemblance to the private car of one August Belmont, Jr., the CEO of the company that built the station.

FDR’s Faithful Companion Still Waits Patiently

Visitors to Grand Central Terminal have claimed to witness a small Scottish Terrier wandering the building. Try to follow him, however, and you’ll run into seemingly solid walls.

A bit of research reveals the pup’s true name: Fala. Once FDR’s trusted sidekick, Fala wanders the halls of the terminal, still searching for his master. Follow him long enough, and he might just lead you to FDR’s secret train station, deep below the Waldorf Astoria. Long considered legend, this is certainly one of NYC’s most haunted subways.

City Hall’s Haunted Ghost Station

Once the jewel of the subway system, the beautiful City Hall Station now lies empty and unused at the end of the 6 line. Its’ cavernous ceilings, now mostly silent, once echoed more than just the footsteps of passengers.

During the construction of the station, workers claimed to hear a strange, unidentifiable noise late at night. Once of the workers, a member of the Leni Lenape tribe, recognized the sound as language. The station was being built on the site of an ancient battle, and the moans belonged to the warriors lost that day. These agitated spirits lamented their lack of a proper burial until a shaman performed a ceremony allowing them to rest. Ou então a história continua.

A Ghostly Mayor Rides the Rails

The day the subway opened for passengers, New York City changed forever. Everyone was thrilled at the freedom the system provided. Crossing from Harlem to Wall Street went from a two-hour journey to a 15 minute jaunt.

Even the Mayor was swept up in the excitement. George McClellan was so enthralled with the new trains, he asked the conductor if he might take the throttle. Concerned, but unwilling to offend the most powerful man in the city, the IRT officials demurred for a few seconds. Imagine their frustration when Mayor McClellan refused to yield, driving the train most of the way to Harlem before relinquishing the controls.

Even death couldn’t smoother the Mayor’s infatuation with the rails. Many travelers claim to have seen this spectral engineer running the controls on the 6 train to this day.

A Tunnel Of Doom, No More?

We’d like to leave our readers on a brighter note with news from the 191st Street Station. Once a 900ft long terrifyingly dark and dingy hole, the tunnel was perhaps the freakiest place in the entire subway system. It earned the nickname “Tunnel of Doom.”

But now through the efforts of the city and several well-respected artists, the tunnel is a much brighter spot for straphangers. With beautiful colorful murals lit by warm LED lamps, this once gloomy passageway is now much safer from dangers, normal and paranormal.

Come visit NYC in the fall and hear some ghost stories first hand. Our One Day New York tour is an excellent way to see the city, and who knows, we might just wander into a few haunted subways on the way!


City Hall (IRT)

Existing abandoned portions: 1 platform (on a track in service).

Touring: 4 5 6 trains to Brooklyn Bridge. From the south end of the downtown platform, watch the 6 train turn sharply right into the loop as it leaves empty, and it will reappear on the far side a minute later, having gone round the loop. There is officially no way to view the station, although it would be easily seen from the 6 train in the loop. The three station skylights corresponded to three gratings in City Hall Park, but they have been covered over in the past few years a solid hatch door appears to mark one of them.

Construction and operation

City Hall was the ceremonial terminal of the first subway project in New York, the place where the mayor could show off the subway built with the people's money to benefit the greatest city in the country. Not at all characteristic of the first subway, it has a sharply curved platform, a Guastavino tile arched ceiling, skylights (blackened in World War II), and plaques praising the work and those involved. The official start of construction took place on 24 March 1900 at the front steps of City Hall, on the site of the station.

Unfortunately, for all that, it was never an important station. It was located on the turning loop for local trains from uptown, and both those and the express trains could be easily taken at the very nearby Brooklyn Bridge station. The curve was noisy, and the gaps it left at the platform were unsafe. The station was closed at night, when the local trains ran to South Ferry loop instead. When it was open, it was an entrance only.

In its last year, a peak year for subway travel, only 600 people a day used it, a small number in New York, and they paid their fares by ticket in a chopper, because the station had never even had turnstiles installed.

The loop track is of course still very much in use. Every run of the 6 train terminating at Brooklyn Bridge uses the loop to run around to the uptown local track.

In April 1995 it was announced that federal grant money was to be sought to restore City Hall station and open it as a branch of the Transit Museum, contingent on funding. It was expected it would be open by late 1997. The track around the loop was reclassed from yard track to mainline, which meant the public could be allowed to ride around and see the station without special permission. The commemorative plaques originally in the station, which had been moved to Brooklyn Bridge station by 1962, were taken back to City Hall and reinstalled in their original positions in 1996. In late 1998, the plans were quietly cancelled, the public were prohibited from riding around the loop, and the Transit Museum's tours of other closed areas were also cancelled.

Diagrama

City Hall station consists of just one short platform on the loop taken by the local track just south of Brooklyn Bridge station. The 6 train runs around the loop to move from the downtown platform to the uptown platform without crossing the express tracks at grade.

A construction photo shows almost all of the City Hall station, walls still untiled and track not yet laid. The self-supporting Guastavino ceiling tile and some decorative ceiling tile is in place. The three skylights throw sunshine onto parts of the platform. The arched opening leading up to the mezzanine and street is at the center of the platform.

Board of Rapid Transit Railroad Commissioners.

Three-quarters of a century later, the closed station looked much the same.

Photo by David Sagarin, 1978. Collection of Library of Congress, Prints and Photographs Division, Historic American Engineering Record of the Heritage Conservation and Recreation Service, NY-122-49 .

Up the short stairway from platform level is this view of the fare control area. From here, stairways in the arches at right and left once led up to the street.

Photo by David Sagarin, 1978. Collection of Library of Congress, Prints and Photographs Division, Historic American Engineering Record of the Heritage Conservation and Recreation Service, NY-122-46 .

For larger versions of the HAER photos, see Built in America at the Library of Congress's site.

A diagram from the commemorative book The New York Subway / Its Construction and Equipment , published in 1904 by the subway's lessee, Interborough Rapid Transit Company, shows how close the station is to City Hall itself. The track passes literally below the front steps. From the midpoint of the curved platform, steps lead up under an arched opening to a small mezzanine area where fares were collected. From there, two stairways led up to each side of the street in front of City Hall.

The loop track continues on a radius 147.25 foot curve and downward, so as to pass under the subway mainline in Park Row. The track rises back to main level on the far side of the main tracks to reach Brooklyn Bridge station back on the main level. The arrangement allows the local trains to terminate without crossing the path of the express trains.

The loop avoided passing under the Post Office building that occupied the southern end of City Hall Park from 1875 to 1939.

A photo of the City Hall kiosk on the north side of the drive (see the diagram above) is an excellent study of these structures that once covered all the IRT station entrances. City Hall itself is at right. The sign on the glass says UP TOWN under the larger ENTRANCE .

Board of Rapid Transit Railroad Commissioners. From their Report. . . for the year ending December 31, 1903 , New York: the Commission, 1904.

The official IRT map appeared to show City Hall at the end of a stub branch line, but because the station circle touches the main line, it may be that the designer was trying to show a loop. The hand-drawn and -lettered map is off scale and stylized, but this designer's license is not always used to provide clarity. Curves are all shown as angles, not the best choice to depict loops. The curve of the Seventh Ave express line from Park Place to Fulton St is very awkwardly shown, making an angle exactly where it crosses the Lexington and appearing to have some connection with City Hall loop.

The far better designed Hagstrom subway map of 1936 showed very clearly that City Hall was on a loop. Doing so used up valuable space in a crowded area. Apparently the public were so familiar with the 'City Hall loop' that depicting it otherwise would be too contrary to expectations.

(This image is fuzzy because it is an enlarged reproduction of a reproduction found in Twelve Historical New York City Street and Transit Maps , H & M Productions, 1997.)

Street maps routinely showed the City Hall loop. A Rand McNally product designed circa 1920 shows it and the large cluster of transit lines at Brooklyn Bridge station just steps away.

The map in Travelgide's How to Find Your Way in New York of 1928, shown much enlarged, is unusually accurate about the subway lines in this area, and even shows stations as rectangles rather than circles. Brooklyn Bridge station is shown extending just south of the turnoff to City Hall loop, which is what it did at the time (see the page on Brooklyn Bridge station).

The Geographia map accompanying the Complete Street Guide to New York dates from sometime in the 1930's. The loop is drawn a little loosely. The Post Office and Mail St are named, but this edition from 1939 should be the last time, because they were both removed that year and the grounds were regained for City Hall Park.

The Hagstrom street map of 1934 set a new standard for street maps of New York. The map is elegant both in the sense of conveying information and in an artistic sense. In this detail from a 1945 edition, the Post Office and Mail St are gone.

A sample Red Book guide, 1935, listed the City Hall station as one minute from Brooklyn Bridge. It also identifies it as Loop City Hall, showing how the loop was part of the public image of the station.


Content - Exp - Culture History - History - City Hall

A prominent landmark on the Kingston waterfront since 1844, City Hall is the symbolic centre of the community's civic government and administration. Originally designed by architect George Browne when Kingston was the capital of the United Province of Canada, City Hall is one of the finest 19th century buildings in Canada and a nationally designated heritage site.

In addition to municipal government and City Council, the building has hosted many different organizations and services over the years including a bank, a saloon, church groups, theatre productions, a courtroom and a women's medical school. Learn more about Kingston City Hall's history in Fast Facts below.

City Hall's Market Wing Cultural Space

The redeveloped first floor Market Wing at Kingston City Hall is scheduled to open to the public in February 2021. This newly accessible space, located within Kingston City Hall National Historic Site, has been designed to house exhibitions and programs that combine history and the arts to highlight Kingston, and to explore a diversity of histories, stories and ideas relevant to residents and visitors alike. The Market Wing will also include dedicated space to showcase Indigenous history and culture and the people who have lived in this area since time immemorial. The development of this content will be led by an Indigenous curator and involve ongoing consultations with the community. Learn more about this exciting cultural space along with visitation tips, hours and COVID-19 protocols.

City Hall Tours

Learn more about Kingston City Hall's fascinating history, beautiful architecture – and about the intriguing people, events and stories associated with this national historic site. Those interested in heritage architecture will also enjoy the Heritage Resource Centre in the Market Square wing. Admission is by donation.

2021 Guided Tour Schedule

What to Expect
People interested in taking a guided tour are asked to line up at the base of the stairs leading up the front entrance of City Hall at 216 Ontario St. Guests requiring an accessible entry may use the Market Street entrance. Guides will meet groups there and bring them into the building to start their tour. Tours will last approximately 30 minutes and in-order to maintain physical distancing tours will be limited to 6 people. Tours will be on a first come first served basis.

Masks are required upon entering City Hall and visitors will need to answer standard COVID-19 related screening questions, provide contact information for every member of their tour party and to sanitize their hands.

Tours in Other Languages

Call 613-546-4291, ext. 1389 to arrange a tour by a guide who speaks any of the following languages.

Holidays

Tours are not offered on the following days:

Groups & Special Interests
​​​​​​​Tours can be customized to accommodate varied interests. Advanced notice is requested for groups larger than 6 people and school groups. To book your tour of City Hall, email [email protected] or call 613-546-4291 ext. 1389.

Become a Tour Guide

Have a passion for history and community? Want to share the history of the City of Kingston and City Hall with the public? Join the Kingston City Hall Tour Guide Program and help share the story of Kingston with locals and visitors from around the world.

The first two floors are available year-round using the following print-friendly guides:

Advance notice is requested for school and group tours. Email [email protected] or call 613-546-4291, ext. 1389.

Online tours

An online tour is also available via City Hall Chronicles.

Civic Portraits

The gallery below offers a glimpse of Kingston's former Mayors portraits posted in City Hall.


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