Thomas Graham - História

Thomas Graham - História


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Thomas Graham

(Tr: t. 202; 1. 115'6 "; b. 22'2" 'dph. 12'2 ", v. 10 k.; Cl." Strath')

Thomas Graham - uma traineira a vapor com casco de aço construído em 1918 em Bowling, Escócia, por Scott and Sons, para o Almirantado Britânico - foi alugado pela Marinha para servir ao Destacamento de Varrimento de Minas do Mar do Norte em maio de 1919. Baseado em Kirkwall, Escócia , ela serviu com o destacamento até o verão de 1919. Aparentemente, a última tarefa oficial do navio era transportar o corpo do capitão Roscoe C. Bulmer, o comandante do Destacamento de Varrimento de Minas do Mar do Norte, de Kirkwall a Inverness, na Escócia. O capitão Bulmer foi gravemente ferido em um acidente automobilístico em Kirkwall em 4 de agosto de 1919 e morreu a bordo do Black Nawk (Destroyer Tender No. 9) no dia seguinte.

Thomas Graham foi devolvido ao Almirantado em 7 de agosto.


Navegação

Elizabeth Graham, minha avó, esposa de James Graham Glenwherry, seu bisavô Alex Graham participaram do ataque ao quartel militar de Belfast em 1737, e o folclore diz que ele foi o homem que matou o soberano (prefeito) durante o ' Os distúrbios de Heart's Of Steel ', por isso sua família ficou conhecida por gerações como o "Soberano Graham'.

Ann Graham, 1ª dos três filhos de Elizabeth e James

Richard Graham, serviu em 1st W.W. segundo filho de Elizabeth e James. Posteriormente, foi O.C do I.R.A durante os pogroms em Ballinahinch, Co. Down. 1920. Nos EUA, ele se juntou a Cathal O'Byrne, como o apoio musical de Cathal para arrecadar fundos por meio de shows itinerantes para arrecadar dinheiro para construir casas para católicos que haviam sido queimados em suas casas no pogrom, Amcomria Street, Beechmount era uma dessas ruas de novas casas.

Meu pai de 17 anos em Los Angeles

James Graham, meu pai, terceiro filho de Elizabeth e James, serviu no exército irlandês.

Catherine 'Kitty' Graham (nee Mullan), minha mãe e criada em Ardoyne. Sua família é originária de Toomebridge County Antrim Came, de origem irlandesa católica republicana. Ela foi nomeada em homenagem a sua avó Catherine Mullan.

Minha irmã Bridie, a mais velha de 12 filhos

Minha irmã patsy

Minha irmã, Elizabeth. (Betty)

Meu irmão Richard, Richard escapou da prisão de Crumlin Road em Belfast em 7 de junho de 1957, uma prisão que na época era considerada a mais segura da Irlanda e do Reino Unido. Muito individualista e não conformista

Minha irmã annie

Meu irmão paddy

Minha irmã Myrtle, 1965

Minha irmã geraldine

Minha irmã Myrtle Doris, 1951

Meus irmãos, gêmeos, Brian e Noel

James Graham, meu pai, católico irlandês muito orgulhoso, mas também orgulhoso de suas raízes presbiterianas irlandesas

Sepultura do meu pai

Joe e sua filha Deborah no Coventry Grave de meu pai, fevereiro de 2007

Joe, Richard e Brian no túmulo do pai. 2007

Meu irmão Hughie no túmulo do pai

Sepultura da minha mãe. Cidade do moinho.

Joe Graham, abril de 1981, na rádio de Los Angeles, desmentindo a propaganda negra sobre os Hunger Strikers que estava sendo vendida por Adam Butler do governo britânico e pela N.I.O na TV e no rádio da Califórnia.

Meus netos

Deborah e Simon

Clique acima para mais Genealogia de Graham


Dr. Thomas Graham

O Dr. Graham está no Flagler College desde 1973. Atualmente é Professor Emérito de História no Departamento de Humanidades.

Ele recebeu seu PhD em história pela University of Florida em 1973. Seus graus de MA e BA vieram da Florida State University em 1967 e 1965.

O interesse de pesquisa do Dr. Graham é na História dos Estados Unidos do século XIX. Ele é o autor de Flagler's St. Augustine Hotels (Pineapple Press, 2004), The Awakening of St. Augustine (St. Augustine Historical Society, 1978), Charles H. Jones, Jornalista e Político da Idade Dourada (Editoras Universitárias da Flórida , 1990) e Mr. Flagler's St. Augustine. Jones fundou o Jacksonville, Florida Times-Union na década de 1880.

Ele é ex-presidente e membro honorário vitalício da Sociedade Histórica de Santo Agostinho e atuou no Conselho de Diretores da Sociedade Histórica da Flórida.

Nascido em Miami em 1943, sua árvore genealógica remonta às famílias Sanchez e Alvarez até o início de 1600 em Santo Agostinho.


Black Enterprise , Outubro de 1996, p. 60 de setembro de 2001, p. 80 de fevereiro de 2005, p. 112

Boston Globe , 6 de junho de 1999, p. N5, 4 de dezembro de 2001, p. D1.

Boston Herald , 17 de maio de 1998, p. 67

Semana de negócios , 9 de outubro de 2000, p. 206, 3 de outubro de 2005, p. 48, 10 de outubro de 2005, p. 95

Business Wire, 24 de julho de 2001.

Notícias diárias (New York, NY), 20 de setembro de 2005, p. 54

Notícias multicanais , 28 de janeiro de 2002, p. 22W.

New York Times , 3 de abril de 1998, p. B2, 2 de maio de 1999, sec. 3, pág. 2, 18 de julho de 1999, sec. 14WC, pág. 3 de 20 de setembro de 2005, p. C8.


Dublin Core

Título

Descrição

Na entrevista 1, Graham discutiu sua autoria de um próximo livro sobre zonas livres de armas nucleares, as negociações que levaram à extensão do Tratado de Não-Proliferação Nuclear em 1995, suas memórias de aprender a arte da diplomacia e o caminho que ele percorreu para se tornar um negociador de controle de armas. Ele então compartilhou sua experiência de ter sido perseguido politicamente por seu trabalho, comentou sobre o ativismo antinuclear de Linus Pauling & # 039 e elogiou as atividades do presidente Barack Obama em relação à não proliferação nuclear.

De lá, Graham retransmitiu suas memórias de negociação em nome de várias administrações presidenciais e falou de seu trabalho para proibir o uso de armas químicas e biológicas. A entrevista concluiu com os pensamentos de Graham sobre as mudanças climáticas, incluindo o papel crucial que a energia nuclear pode desempenhar na redução da dependência mundial dos combustíveis fósseis.

De 1970 a 1997, o Embaixador Graham participou da negociação de todos os principais acordos de controle de armas e não proliferação que envolviam os Estados Unidos. Nesse mesmo período, ele se envolveu em discussões diplomáticas com representantes de mais de cem países.


Dublin Core

Título

Descrição

Na entrevista 2, Graham discutiu seus primeiros anos, incluindo o envolvimento de sua família na política, a formação de sua perspectiva política e seu primeiro trabalho em direito e governo. Ele então comentou sobre a tentativa, em 1993, de eliminar a Agência de Controle de Armas e Desarmamento (ACDA), a luta da era Reagan sobre o tratado de mísseis antibalísticos que foi inaugurado pelo avanço da Iniciativa de Defesa Estratégica, também conhecida como & quotStar Wars & quot e suas próprias memórias pessoais de ser denunciado por adversários políticos que defendiam interesses pessoais contra seu trabalho. Em seguida, ele refletiu sobre a dissolução final da ACDA em 1999 e o papel desempenhado pelo senador Jesse Helms em causar a morte da agência.

Mais tarde na sessão, Graham falou sobre a participação em um grupo chamado Republicanos para Obama, forneceu uma longa lembrança das negociações que levaram à assinatura e ratificação do Tratado de Forças Armadas Convencionais na Europa no início dos anos 1990 e compartilhou suas lembranças do colapso do bloco soviético na Europa Oriental, incluindo sua experiência pessoal de observar a partida final de ministros comunistas de Praga. A entrevista concluiu com as reflexões de Graham & # 039s sobre o papel que a ACDA desempenhou na defesa da moratória de proibição de testes nucleares, incluindo uma decisão fundamental relacionada às ambições chinesas de testes nucleares. Ele também respondeu a uma pergunta final pedindo conselhos que ele ofereceria àqueles que desejam livrar o mundo das armas nucleares.

De 1970 a 1997, o Embaixador Graham participou da negociação de todos os principais acordos de controle de armas e não proliferação que envolviam os Estados Unidos. Nesse mesmo período, ele se envolveu em discussões diplomáticas com representantes de mais de cem países.


Thomas Graham - História

Algumas das propriedades físicas dos gases dependem da identidade do gás. Uma dessas propriedades físicas pode ser vista quando o movimento dos gases é estudado.

Em 1829, Thomas Graham usou um aparelho semelhante ao mostrado na Figura 4.15 para estudar a difusão dos gases - a taxa na qual dois gases se misturam. Este aparelho consiste em um tubo de vidro selado em uma das extremidades com gesso que possui orifícios grandes o suficiente para permitir que o gás entre ou saia do tubo. Quando o tubo é preenchido com H2 gás, o nível de água no tubo sobe lentamente porque o H2 as moléculas dentro do tubo escapam pelos orifícios do gesso mais rapidamente do que as moléculas do ar podem entrar no tubo. Ao estudar a taxa de variação do nível da água neste aparato, Graham conseguiu obter dados sobre a taxa de mistura de diferentes gases com o ar.

Graham descobriu que as taxas de difusão dos gases são inversamente proporcionais à raiz quadrada de suas densidades.

Essa relação acabou se tornando conhecida como a lei da difusão de Graham.

Para entender a importância dessa descoberta, devemos lembrar que volumes iguais de gases diferentes contêm o mesmo número de partículas. Como resultado, o número de moles de gás por litro a uma dada temperatura e pressão é constante, o que significa que a densidade de um gás é diretamente proporcional ao seu peso molecular. A lei da difusão de Graham pode, portanto, ser escrita como segue.

Resultados semelhantes foram obtidos quando Graham estudou a taxa de efusão de um gás, que é a taxa na qual o gás escapa por um orifício para o vácuo. A taxa de efusão de um gás também é inversamente proporcional à raiz quadrada da densidade ou do peso molecular do gás.

A lei da efusão de Graham pode ser demonstrada com o aparelho mostrado abaixo. Um frasco de filtro de parede espessa é evacuado com uma bomba de vácuo. Uma seringa é preenchida com 25 mL de gás e o tempo necessário para o gás escapar através da agulha da seringa para o frasco de filtro evacuado é medido com um cronômetro. Os dados experimentais na tabela abaixo foram obtidos usando uma agulha especial com um orifício muito pequeno (0,015 cm) pelo qual o gás poderia escapar.

O tempo necessário para que amostras de 25 mL de gases diferentes escapem através de um orifício de 0,015 cm para o vácuo

Composto Tempo (s) Peso molecular
H2 5.1 2.02
Ele 7.2 4.00
NH3 14.2 17.0
ar 18.2 29.0
O2 19.2 32.0
CO2 22.5 44.0
TÃO2 27.4 64.1

Como podemos ver quando esses dados são representados graficamente a seguir, o Tempo necessário para que amostras de 25 mL de gases diferentes escapem para o vácuo é proporcional à raiz quadrada do peso molecular do gás. o avaliar em que a efusão de gases é, portanto, inversamente proporcional à raiz quadrada do peso molecular. As observações de Graham sobre a taxa na qual os gases se difundem (se misturam) ou se efundem (escapam por um orifício) sugerem que partículas de gás relativamente leves, como H2 moléculas ou átomos de He se movem mais rápido do que partículas de gás relativamente pesadas, como CO2 ou então2 moléculas.

Um gráfico do tempo necessário para que amostras de 25 mL de diferentes gases escapem para um frasco evacuado versus a raiz quadrada do peso molecular do gás. Moléculas relativamente pesadas se movem mais lentamente e leva mais tempo para o gás escapar.

A teoria cinética molecular pode ser usada para explicar os resultados obtidos por Graham ao estudar a difusão e a efusão de gases. A chave para essa explicação é o último postulado da teoria cinética, que assume que a temperatura de um sistema é proporcional à energia cinética média de suas partículas e nada mais. Em outras palavras, a temperatura de um sistema aumenta se e somente se houver um aumento na energia cinética média de suas partículas.

Dois gases, como H2 e O2, na mesma temperatura, portanto, deve ter a mesma energia cinética média. Isso pode ser representado pela seguinte equação.

Esta equação pode ser simplificada multiplicando ambos os lados por dois.

Ele pode então ser reorganizado para dar o seguinte.

Tirar a raiz quadrada de ambos os lados desta equação dá uma relação entre a proporção das velocidades nas quais os dois gases se movem e a raiz quadrada da proporção de seus pesos moleculares.

Esta equação é uma forma modificada da lei de Graham. Isso sugere que a velocidade (ou taxa) na qual as moléculas de gás se movem é inversamente proporcional à raiz quadrada de seus pesos moleculares.


Graham History, Family Crest & Coats of Arms

A distinta família Graham, que está completamente entrelaçada na intrincada tapeçaria da história escocesa, encontra sua origem com o orgulhoso povo normando. O nome vem do lugar Grantham em Lincolnshire, registrado no Domesday Book como Graham.

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Origens da família Graham

O sobrenome Graham foi encontrado pela primeira vez em Midlothian, onde se estabeleceram após acompanhar o conde David de Huntingdon à Escócia durante o século XII. Em 1128, o Rei David I concedeu as terras de Abercorn e Dalkeith a William de Graham, que é o primeiro membro registrado do Clã Graham na Escócia e foi testemunha de várias cartas reais.

Henry de Graham herdou as propriedades de seu sogro em Eskdale em 1243. Sir John de Grahame foi um companheiro fiel do patriota escocês Sir William Wallace e foi morto na Batalha de Falkirk em 1298.

& quot [Grahamston] deriva seu nome de Sir John the Graham, que foi morto aqui na batalha que Wallace lutou com Edward I. & quot [1]

Pacote de história do brasão e sobrenome

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História da família Graham

Esta página da web mostra apenas um pequeno trecho de nossa pesquisa Graham. Outras 422 palavras (30 linhas de texto) cobrindo os anos 1086, 1128, 1237, 1298, 1488, 1427, 1707, 1450, 1603, 1715, 1745, 1782, 1464, 1513, 1505, 1548, 1608, 1612, 1650, 1648, 1689, 1648, 1695, 1634, 1694, 1702, 1680, 1689 e estão incluídos no tópico Early Graham History em todos os nossos produtos PDF Extended History e produtos impressos sempre que possível.

Moletom com capuz brasão unissex

Graham Spelling Variations

As variações de grafia desse nome de família incluem: Graham, Grahame, Graeme, Grame, Greumach (gaélico), Montross e muitos mais.

Primeiros notáveis ​​da família Graham (antes de 1700)

Notável entre a família nesta época era William Graham, 4º Lord Graham (1464-1513), que se tornou o Conde de Montrose em 1505 John Graham (1548-1608), 3º Conde de Montrose foi o Chanceler da Universidade de St Andrews James Graham (1612-1650), 5º Conde e 1º Marquês de Montrose, um general escocês nas Guerras Civis inglesas, que lutou pelos realistas de Charles.
Outras 63 palavras (4 linhas de texto) estão incluídas no tópico Primeiros notáveis ​​de Graham em todos os nossos produtos de história estendida em PDF e produtos impressos, sempre que possível.

Migração da família Graham para a Irlanda

Alguns membros da família Graham mudaram-se para a Irlanda, mas este tópico não é abordado neste trecho.
Outras 62 palavras (4 linhas de texto) sobre a vida deles na Irlanda estão incluídas em todos os nossos produtos PDF Extended History e produtos impressos, sempre que possível.

Migração Graham +

Alguns dos primeiros colonos com este sobrenome foram:

Graham Settlers nos Estados Unidos no século 17
  • Ant Graham, que se estabeleceu na Virgínia em 1651
  • E Graham, que chegou à Virgínia em 1651 [2]
  • Donell Graham, que desembarcou na Virgínia em 1655 [2]
  • Elizabeth Graham, que desembarcou em Maryland em 1676 [2]
  • Jane Graham, que desembarcou em Maryland em 1677 [2]
  • . (Mais estão disponíveis em todos os nossos produtos PDF Extended History e produtos impressos, sempre que possível.)
Graham Settlers nos Estados Unidos no século 18
  • Francis Graham, que desembarcou na Nova Inglaterra em 1719 [2]
  • Jo Graham, que se estabeleceu na Geórgia em 1733
  • Catharine Graham, que chegou a Nova York, NY em 1738 [2]
  • Eliz Graham, que chegou a Nova York em 1738 [2]
  • Angus Graham, que chegou a Nova York em 1740 [2]
  • . (Mais estão disponíveis em todos os nossos produtos PDF Extended History e produtos impressos, sempre que possível.)
Graham Settlers nos Estados Unidos no Século 19
  • James W Graham, que desembarcou em Nova York em 1801 [2]
  • Alexander Graham, de 34 anos, que desembarcou em Nova York, NY em 1803 [2]
  • Humphry Graham, de 50 anos, que desembarcou na Filadélfia, Pensilvânia em 1804 [2]
  • Gilbert Graham, que desembarcou na América em 1804 [2]
  • Joanna Graham, que desembarcou na América em 1805 [2]
  • . (Mais estão disponíveis em todos os nossos produtos PDF Extended History e produtos impressos, sempre que possível.)

Migração Graham para o Canadá +

Alguns dos primeiros colonos com este sobrenome foram:

Graham Settlers no Canadá no século 18
  • Augustine Graham, que chegou à Nova Escócia em 1749
  • Donald Graham, que desembarcou na Nova Escócia em 1773
  • Donald Graham, que chegou a Pictou, Nova Escócia em 1773
  • Sr. Mires Graham U.E. (nascido em 1764) que chegou a Annapolis Royal, Condado de Annapolis, Nova Escócia c. 1782 ele morreu em 1833 em Centerville, Digby County, Nova Scotia, casado com Anna Waggoner eles tiveram 4 filhos [3]
  • Sr. Oliver Graham U.E. que se estabeleceu no Distrito Oriental [Cornualha], Ontário c. 1784 [3]
  • . (Mais estão disponíveis em todos os nossos produtos PDF Extended History e produtos impressos, sempre que possível.)
Graham Settlers no Canadá no século 19
  • Elizabeth Graham, que chegou à Nova Escócia em 1814
  • Elizabeth Graham, que desembarcou na Nova Escócia em 1821
  • Duncan Graham, que chegou ao Canadá em 1832
  • Sarah Graham, de 40 anos, que chegou a Saint John, New Brunswick em 1833 a bordo do brigue & quotWilliam & quot de Cork, Irlanda
  • Catherine Graham, de 18 anos, que chegou a Saint John, New Brunswick, a bordo do navio & quotQuintin Leitch & quot em 1833
  • . (Mais estão disponíveis em todos os nossos produtos PDF Extended History e produtos impressos, sempre que possível.)

Migração Graham para Austrália +

A emigração para a Austrália seguiu as primeiras frotas de condenados, comerciantes e primeiros colonos. Os primeiros imigrantes incluem:

Graham Settlers na Austrália no Século 19
  • Sr. John Graham, (n. 1786), de 15 anos, condenado irlandês que foi condenado em Dublin, Irlanda por 7 anos, transportado a bordo do & quotAtlas & quot em 29 de novembro de 1801, chegando em New South Wales, Austrália, ele morreu em 1859 [4 ]
  • Srta. Mary Ann Graham, condenada irlandesa que foi condenada em Cork, Irlanda por 7 anos, transportada a bordo do & quotAtlas & quot em 29 de novembro de 1801, chegando em New South Wales, Austrália [4]
  • Sr. John Graham, condenado escocês que foi condenado em Perth, Escócia por 14 anos, transportado a bordo do & quotCaledonia & quot em 19 de junho de 1822, chegando à Tasmânia (Terra de Van Diemen) [5]
  • Thomas Graham, um marceneiro, que chegou a Nova Gales do Sul, Austrália em algum momento entre 1825 e 1832
  • William Graham, um tecelão, que chegou a Van Diemen & # 8217s Land (agora Tasmânia) em algum momento entre 1825 e 1832
  • . (Mais estão disponíveis em todos os nossos produtos PDF Extended History e produtos impressos, sempre que possível.)

Migração Graham para a Nova Zelândia +

A emigração para a Nova Zelândia seguiu os passos dos exploradores europeus, como o Capitão Cook (1769-70): primeiro vieram caçadores de focas, baleeiros, missionários e comerciantes. Em 1838, a Companhia Britânica da Nova Zelândia começou a comprar terras das tribos Maori e vendê-las aos colonos e, após o Tratado de Waitangi em 1840, muitas famílias britânicas iniciaram a árdua jornada de seis meses da Grã-Bretanha a Aotearoa para começar uma nova vida. Os primeiros imigrantes incluem:

Graham Settlers na Nova Zelândia no século 19
  • Thomas Graham, que desembarcou na Baía das Ilhas, Nova Zelândia em 1836
  • David Graham, que desembarcou em Auckland, Nova Zelândia em 1840
  • George Graham, que desembarcou em Auckland, Nova Zelândia em 1840
  • W S Graham, que desembarcou em Auckland, Nova Zelândia em 1840
  • Sr. Graham, colono australiano viajando de Sydney a bordo do navio & quotBee & quot chegando em Bay of Islands, Ilha do Norte, Nova Zelândia em 1840 [6]
  • . (Mais estão disponíveis em todos os nossos produtos PDF Extended History e produtos impressos, sempre que possível.)

Notáveis ​​contemporâneos de nome Graham (pós 1700) +

  • Katharine Meyer Graham (1917-2001), editora americana do The Washington Post, suas memórias, Personal History, ganharam o Prêmio Pulitzer em 1998 e ela recebeu a Medalha Presidencial da Liberdade
  • Martha Graham (1894-1991), dançarina americana, coreógrafa e ganhadora da Medalha Presidencial da Liberdade
  • William Franklin & quotBilly & quot Graham KBE Jr. (1918-2018), evangelista cristão evangélico americano e ministro batista do sul ordenado, anfitrião das Cruzadas Billy Graham (1947-2005), conselheiro espiritual de todos os presidentes, de Harry Truman a Barack Obama
  • Julia & quotJulie & quot Graham (n. 1965), atriz escocesa de televisão e cinema, conhecida por seus papéis em The Bletchley Circle e Shetland
  • Robert Bontine Cunninghame Graham (1852-1936), escritor e político escocês
  • Elizabeth Jennings Graham (1827-1901), figura americana dos direitos civis que insistiu em seu direito de andar em um bonde da cidade de Nova York em 1854, levando à dessegregação dos sistemas de trânsito da cidade de Nova York
  • Andrew Alexander Kenny & quotAlec & quot Graham (1929-2021), bispo anglicano inglês da Diocese de Newcastle (1981-1997)
  • Lawrence Otis Graham (1961-2021), advogado americano e autor de best-sellers do New York Times
  • Ronald Lewis Graham (1935-2020), matemático americano creditado pela American Mathematical Society como & quotone dos principais arquitetos do rápido desenvolvimento mundial da matemática discreta nos últimos anos & quot
  • Chuck Graham (1965-2020), político americano no Partido Democrata
  • . (Outros 32 notáveis ​​estão disponíveis em todos os nossos produtos PDF Extended History e produtos impressos, sempre que possível.)

Eventos históricos para a família Graham +

Arrow Air Flight 1285
  • Sr. Thomas Lyle Graham (nascido em 1958), especialista americano de 4ª classe de Jacksonville, Flórida, EUA, que morreu no acidente [7]
  • Sr. Kelly O Graham (nascido em 1966), especialista americano de 4ª classe de San Jose, Califórnia, EUA, que morreu no acidente [7]
Imperatriz da Irlanda
  • Sra. Elizabeth Graham (1868-1914), n & # 233e Humphreys British First Class Passenger retornando de Hong Kong, China, que estava viajando a bordo do Empress of Ireland e morreu no naufrágio [8]
  • Sr. Walter Graham (1859-1914), passageiro britânico de primeira classe voltando de Hong Kong, China, que estava viajando a bordo do Empress of Ireland e morreu naufragado [8]
Voo TWA 800
  • Sr. Steven K. Graham (1958-1996), de 38 anos, de Napa, Califórnia, EUA, Diretor de Marketing Americano voando a bordo do vôo TWA 800 da J.F.K. Aeroporto, de Nova York ao Aeroporto Leonardo da Vinci, em Roma, quando o avião caiu após a decolagem, ele morreu no acidente [9]
Halifax Explosion
  • Sr. Francis e # 160 Graham (1892-1917), Metalúrgico canadense em Halifax Graving Dock de Dartmouth, Nova Escócia, Canadá, que morreu na explosão [10]
  • Sra. Florence e # 160 Graham (1894-1917), residente canadense de Halifax, Nova Escócia, Canadá que morreu na explosão [10]
HMAS Sydney II
  • Sr. George Albert Graham (1920-1941), Marinheiro Ordinário Australiano de Belmore, New South Wales, Austrália, que navegou para a batalha a bordo do HMAS Sydney II e morreu no naufrágio [11]
HMS Hood
  • Sr. Donald Graham (nascido em 1916), Assistente de Abastecimento Inglês servindo para a Marinha Real de Portsmouth, Hampshire, Inglaterra, que navegou para a batalha e morreu no naufrágio [12]
HMS Prince of Wales
  • Sr. William Marcus Graham, tenente britânico, que navegou para a batalha no HMS Prince of Wales e sobreviveu ao naufrágio [13]
  • Sr. William Graham, marinheiro capaz britânico, que navegou para a batalha no HMS Prince of Wales e sobreviveu ao naufrágio [13]
  • Sr. Alastair Kennedy Douglas Graham, tesoureiro britânico Paymaster, que navegou para a batalha no HMS Prince of Wales e sobreviveu ao naufrágio [13]
HMS Repulse
HMS Royal Oak
  • Samuel Graham (falecido em 1939), Marinheiro Britânico da Reserva da Marinha Real a bordo do HMS Royal Oak quando ela foi torpedeada pelo U-47 e afundado morreu no naufrágio [15]
  • Philip William Colles Graham (1920-1939), aspirante britânico da Marinha Real a bordo do HMS Royal Oak quando ela foi torpedeada por um U-47 e afundado, ele morreu no naufrágio [15]
  • George Munroe Graham (1922-1939), menino britânico de 1ª classe com a Marinha Real a bordo do HMS Royal Oak quando ela foi torpedeada por U-47 e afundado, ele morreu no naufrágio [15]
Senhora do lago
  • Miss Jane Graham (n. 1817), viajante irlandesa de Coleraine, Irlanda do Norte, que navegou a bordo do & quotLady of the Lake & quot de Greenock, Escócia, em 8 de abril de 1833 para Quebec, Canadá, quando o navio atingiu o gelo e afundou na costa de Newfoundland no 11 de maio de 1833 e ela morreu no naufrágio
  • Miss Mary Ann Graham (n. 1815), viajante que navegou a bordo do & quotLady of the Lake & quot de Greenock, Escócia, em 8 de abril de 1833 para Quebec, Canadá, quando o navio atingiu o gelo e afundou na costa de Newfoundland em 11 de maio de 1833 e ela morreu no naufrágio
RMS Lusitania
  • Sr. Gordon Graham, passageiro americano de 3ª classe de São Francisco, Califórnia, EUA, que navegou a bordo do RMS Lusitania e morreu no naufrágio [16]
RMS Titanic
  • Sr. Thomas G. Graham, de 28 anos, Fireman / Stoker irlandês de Belfast, Irlanda, que trabalhou a bordo do RMS Titanic e sobreviveu ao naufrágio [17]
  • Sra. Edith Ware Graham, (n & # 233e Junkins), de 59 anos, passageira americana de primeira classe de Greenwich, Connecticut, que navegou a bordo do RMS Titanic e sobreviveu ao naufrágio escapando no bote salva-vidas 3 [17]
  • Senhorita Margaret Edith Graham, de 19 anos, passageira americana de primeira classe de Greenwich, Connecticut, que navegou a bordo do RMS Titanic e sobreviveu ao naufrágio escapando no bote salva-vidas 3 [17]
  • Sr. George Edward Graham (falecido em 1912), de 38 anos, passageiro canadense de primeira classe de Winnipeg, Manitoba, que navegou a bordo do RMS Titanic e morreu no naufrágio e foi recuperado por CS Mackay-Bennett [17]
SS Alcoa Puritan
  • B.F. Graham, American Able Seaman de Mobile, Alabama, que estava trabalhando a bordo do SS Alcoa Puritan viajando de Port of Spain, Trinidad para Mobile, Alabama, quando foi torpedeado pelo U-boat U-507, ele sobreviveu ao naufrágio [18]
USS Arizona
  • Sr. Donald A. Graham, oficial de primeira classe do maquinista da aviação americana trabalhando a bordo do navio & quotUSS Arizona & quot quando ela afundou durante o ataque japonês a Pearl Harbor em 7 de dezembro de 1941, ele sobreviveu ao naufrágio [19]

Histórias Relacionadas +

The Graham Motto +

O lema era originalmente um grito de guerra ou slogan. Os lemas começaram a ser exibidos com armas nos séculos 14 e 15, mas não eram usados ​​até o século 17. Assim, os brasões de armas mais antigos geralmente não incluem um lema. Os lemas raramente fazem parte da concessão de armas: sob a maioria das autoridades heráldicas, um lema é um componente opcional do brasão e pode ser acrescentado ou alterado à vontade que muitas famílias optaram por não exibir um lema.

Lema: Ne oublie
Tradução do lema: Não esqueça.


HistoryLink.org

Em 1928, Thomas Graham (1868-1946) escreveu uma série de artigos no Examinador Colville intitulado “50 anos atrás”, contando suas experiências e observações quando adolescente no Vale Colville. As memórias a seguir foram extraídas de Coleção Colville, Book One, compilado por Patrick J. Graham (Colville: Colville Examiner, 1989), 79-120. Eles foram reimpressos com a gentil permissão do Sr. Graham. O material entre colchetes foi resumido do texto ou fornecido para esclarecimento por HistoryLink.org. As memórias de Tom Graham fornecem um vislumbre fascinante em primeira mão da vida dos pioneiros no Vale Colville.

Antecedentes de Thomas Graham e suas memórias

A família de Thomas Graham havia chegado ao condado de Stevens do condado de Monaghan na Irlanda em 14 de outubro de 1878, auxiliado por James Monaghan (1839-1916), irmão da mãe de Tom, Rosanna Graham. O pai de Tom, também Thomas Graham, emigrou da Escócia para a Irlanda, onde se casou com Rosanna Monaghan. A família de nove pessoas navegou de Liverpool a Nova York, pegou o Southern Pacific até San Francisco, depois um navio para Portland e o barco fluvial de Portland para The Dalles, onde sempre foi necessário transportar pelas cascatas antes de continuar de barco a vapor até Wallula . De lá, eles viajaram pela ferrovia de madeira Dr. Baker para Walla Walla, onde James Monoghan encontrou a família com dois vagões para transportá-los pela Colville Road até a área de Colville, uma distância de mais de 320 quilômetros. Esta viagem pela ponte LaPray de Monaghan sobre o rio Spokane levou sete dias, com a família acampada o tempo todo. Eles passaram uma noite na herdade Monaghan, agora parte de Chewelah, antes de continuar para Pinkney City, a cidade que cresceu ao lado do forte militar Colville, pouco mais de cinco quilômetros ao norte da atual Colville.

Tom tinha apenas 10 ou 11 anos quando sua família chegou ao Vale Colville. Ele passou aquele inverno freqüentando o internato da missão católica no local da atual Ala. Ele deixou a escola naquela primavera e iniciou sua carreira como um carteiro muito jovem trabalhando para seu tio, James Monaghan, que tinha o contrato para transportar correspondência três vezes por semana entre o forte militar Colville e Colfax, uma rota de cerca de 130 milhas. Tom e seus irmãos um pouco mais velhos, John e James, intercalaram o transporte de correspondência com tarefas domésticas na fazenda Monaghan em uma terra que agora é a cidade de Chewelah.

Intercaladas entre as memórias de incidentes de Graham estão longas listas de nomes de colonos e suas famílias e as localizações gerais de suas propriedades. Alguns eram ex-soldados que estavam estacionados em Fort Colville, alguns eram ex-funcionários franco-canadenses da Hudson’s Bay Company e outros, como as famílias Monaghan e Graham, eram imigrantes da Europa ou pioneiros do leste dos Estados Unidos. Muitas das famílias eram mestiças, os colonos homens tendo esposas indígenas. Essas listas são inestimáveis ​​para os genealogistas, mas muito longas para serem reimpressas aqui.

A Historylink dividiu as memórias de Graham em três partes: a primeira trata das aventuras dos irmãos Graham entregando a correspondência entre Spokane Falls e Fort Colville. O segundo cobre a agricultura, pecuária e frete no Vale Colville. O terceiro relata as memórias de Tom Graham sobre os índios no vale.

Parte 1: A chegada e a rota do correio

. Nossa primeira entrada em Pinkney City foi no domingo. Havia apenas uma rua na cidade, solidamente ladeada por índios e cayuses, junto com seus cavaleiros - em alguns casos, duas ou três cavalgadas para um cavalo. Como domingo era dia de feira, todos foram à cidade e, claro, vestidos com suas melhores roupas de domingo. Os índios, em seus cobertores chamativos e chapéus, eram uma visão surpreendente para um bando de novatos como nós.

Logo aprendemos como as coisas eram feitas na América. Quando chegou o domingo, uma congregação de bom tamanho, independentemente do credo, reuniu-se na Igreja Católica. . O primeiro padre que encontramos para celebrar a missa foi o padre Joset, um suíço que veio para cá em 1844 como um dos assistentes na igreja da missão perto de Kettle Falls. Nem é preciso dizer que o Padre [Joseph] Joset não dominava muito bem a língua inglesa. Então, depois da missa, o Sr. Monaghan perguntou à minha mãe se ela gostava do sermão. Rápido como um raio, veio a resposta: "Foi bom, mas ainda não sei se ele estava nos abençoando ou xingando." Os cultos eram realizados nesta igreja uma vez por mês, com a presença dos soldados da guarnição e também dos colonos.

. No início de abril de 79, deixei a escola e fiz minha primeira viagem saindo de Fort Colville, carregando a correspondência dos Estados Unidos. . Ao chegar a um ponto oposto ao atual [1928] casa de Monaghan, ao norte de Addy, eu dirigi em um buraco de lama que provou ser quase sem fundo. Em sua luta para sair do buraco de lama, os cavalos arrancaram a língua da diligência e saíram da lama. Olhando para o dano, e não vendo nenhuma maneira de consertá-lo, eu apenas deixei a plataforma lá, soltando os cavalos da língua. Peguei o arreio de um cavalo e coloquei no outro, amarrando também os dois sacos de cota de malha no mesmo cavalo. Eu montei o outro cavalo sem sela para Chewelah, onde entreguei a roupa para meu irmão John, que fez a viagem para Walker’s Prairie, por sua vez entregando a correspondência ao motorista entre aquele ponto e Spokane Falls. Seria bom mencionar neste momento que o motorista na linha de Colfax para Spokane Falls era um Sr. Yale. um dos melhores pilotos de palco que já vi.

. Sempre terei uma lembrança vívida da hospitalidade da família [Joseph] LaPray durante a primavera de 1883. Eu estava carregando a correspondência dos Estados Unidos entre Chewelah e Fort Spokane quando fui atingido por uma tempestade incomum. Depois de deixar a casa de Guy Haines, a chuva, granizo e vento eram tão fortes que quase congelei ao cruzar a pradaria de Walker. Então fui para a casa de LaPray, na época uma cabana de toras de madeira a cerca de quatrocentos metros da estrada principal.

Quando eu fui até a porta e chamei o Sr. LaPray, ele saiu e me ajudou a abrir minha mão esquerda para que eu pudesse soltar as rédeas, minhas roupas congelando e duras. Ele me ajudou a entrar na casa, onde um fogo ardente queimava na grande lareira. A Sra. La Pray descongelou minhas roupas enquanto o Sr. La Pray colocava meu cavalo no celeiro. Apesar de não ter nenhuma roupa para caber em mim, fui colocada na cama nua enquanto a Sra. LaPray secava minhas roupas.

Enquanto isso, o Sr. LaPray entrou e relatou que não conseguiu desamarrar o saco de correspondência da sela. Então, por uma noite, o correio dos EUA foi deixado para descansar no estábulo. Quando o jantar ficou pronto, enrolei-me em um cobertor e jantei com a família. .

Guy Haines foi postmaster em Walker’s Prairie, uma posição que ocupou por um longo período de anos. Em sua casa estava uma de nossas estações de palco para onde normalmente transferíamos a correspondência dos EUA para o motorista de Spokane Falls. A casa dos Haines era um ponto de parada para todos os viajantes, onde sempre tinham a certeza de uma recepção amigável, uma refeição justa e uma boa cama. A herdade Haines estava localizada no mesmo local onde os primeiros missionários Congregacionais, [Elkanah] Walker e [Cushing] Eells, começaram seus trabalhos missionários entre os índios do Condado de Stevens. . Padre Eells, como era chamado, bem conhecido de todos os antigos colonos do condado de Stevens. Ele costumava ser um passageiro em nosso palco. The best part of the time he drove his own rig, a sorrel horse and buggy. His kindly ways endeared him to all who met him.

. It was a standing order from Mr. Monaghan, owner of the stage line, that all priests and ministers, regardless of creed or color, were to be carried at half fare. So an incident that occurred in ’79, while in no way reflecting on the traveling ministers, will bear repeating. A minister and his wife came from Walla Walla, riding on the stage, receiving the benefits of the lower fare rates due to all [those] of his supposed calling. However, on arriving at Fort Colville or Pinkney City, their subsequent actions proved they were imposters, he being a tinhorn gambler, while the wife was just a little lower in the scale of humanity. Having them again for passengers on the return trip, this time they paid full fare with the remark from the woman that they could afford it as following the U.S. paymaster was a paying proposition.

. The next [homestead was that of] James Monaghan, where the greater part of the town site of Chewelah now stands. My parents, brothers and sisters resided on and operated the farm for some years after coming to Stevens County. There in the fall of 1879 my oldest brother, Philip, join the family, coming from Australia. It was here also that my sister Rosanna was born in the same house where my cousin, John Robert Monaghan, the hero of Samoa, was born. [James Monaghan’s son, a Navy ensign and graduate of the Naval Academy at Annapolis, was killed defending a wounded comrade during in a skirmish in Samoa in 1899. In 1906 a large statue of him was erected at Riverside and Monroe streets in Spokane.]

. It was during our residence at Chewelah that my brothers and I each took our turn in handling Uncle Sam’s mail, as well as operating the farm. In those early days my brother John was the only one of us [legally] old enough to carry the mails, as a carrier had to be 16 years old before Uncle Sam would entrust him with anything so valuable. However, the good nature of the different postmasters throughout Stevens County kept them from inquiring too closely into the age of the drivers.

. The postmaster at Spokane Falls, Sylvester Heath, had some trouble with Mr. Yale, the driver between Colfax and Spokane Falls, with the result that Mr. Yale was ordered out of the post office. Not moving as fast as the postmaster thought he should, Mr. Heath came from behind his counter and ejected Mr. Yale bodily. This was what Mr. Yale was playing for, and as soon as he got Mr. Heath out of the post office, he turned on him and gave him a good thrashing. As soon as he was able to do so, he wrote Mr. Monaghan to discharge the fighting driver. I suppose that was one of the letters that were never answered. So Mr. Heath retaliated by refusing to allow my brother James to take the mail out on the next trip, saying he was not old enough to carry the U.S. mail. Being informed by friends of what was to happen, Jim took a mail sack in each hand, hefted them, saying: “Pshaw! They ain’t heavy. I can carry both of them.” With that he put them into the stage and drove off, leaving Postmaster Heath to make the best of it. There was no more trouble after this because of our age.

Let me relate an incident that occurred in the summer of 1879. Perhaps there are still [1828] old timers living who will remember the old log bridge that spanned the Colville River at the Reid Montgomery place. Every stick in it was round logs, even to the floor. On the day of this incident a heavily laden U.S. government mule team had crossed on its way to Fort Colville. At the point where the structure crossed the main stream the heavy wagon had broken one of the outside stringers. When a few hours later my brother John crossed with the stage wagon, he drove onto the broken part, innocent of the fact that anything was amiss with the bridge.

In less time that it takes to tell it, the broken part upset into the river, taking horses, rig and driver with it. The driver escaped by swimming, and on reaching the riverbank, called for help. The neighbors working in the hay fields soon responded to his call, as did also a band of Indians, who were camped nearby. It was found one of the horses was dead. An Indian named Buckskin Jim swam to where the outfit was and unharnessed the dead horse and started the carcass down the river. He then took the live horse and swam down the river perhaps 300 yards to a point where the bank of the river was clear of brush and low enough to get the animal ashore. In the meantime, my brother, who was an excellent swimmer, had rescued the sacks of mail and brought them to our home. When postmaster James O’Neil heard of the accident, he came over there with the keys, opened the mail sacks and dried the contents in the oven over our kitchen stove. In the meantime the rig was gotten out of the river and taken across the bridge by hand. Another horse was brought from our place, and the broken parts mended, and everything was ready to finish the trip to Walker’s Prairie.

. [Another incident occurred] in the summer of 1882, while we were operating a daily stage from Spokane to Colville. Mr. Monaghan had exchanged three large mules . for nine head of horses. The animals were corralled at Wild Goose Bill’s place, where the town of Wilbur now is. Six of them were sold for cavalry horses to the U.S. government to be used at the garrison at Walla Walla. But the other three proved to be outlaws and could not be used for the same purpose, so they were sent to the Monaghan ranch at Chewelah [for my brothers and me to work with them.] We got them quiet enough to drive them on the stage, but had not had the time to break them to ride.

The arrangement of the daily stage was to bring all the passengers in [the mail stage] over the Cottonwood Road. This left the mail for the Walker’s Prairie and Deep Creek post offices to be continued as usual three times a week. There was not much mail to be carried over that route, so it was carried on horseback. . On one occasion it was found that one small sack of first class mail had been overlooked in the post office at Spokane. This, of course, was an awful breach of regulations. When it was called to my brother Jim’s attention, he undertook to remedy the mistake by taking the mail to Chewelah on horseback over the Cotton Road. But on reaching our first stage station at Peavine Jimmie’s place on the Little Spokane, he found there was nothing to ride but one of the unbroken outlaw horses.

It so happened that L. W. Meyers was there at the time with a load of freight for his own store that he operated at his home near the Colville mission. . Telling his troubles to Mr. Meyers, who himself was a splendid horseman and a great lover of horses, he assisted Jim to get the animal saddled and the sack of mail tied behind the saddle. But from the caper that the outlaw horse was cutting up, it was decided to lead the animal across the bridge spanning the Little Spokane River before mounting him, because of the fact that the land there was level and [there were] no fences or other obstructions to contend with except a stand of open timber. For a time, Mr. Meyers enjoyed the sight of a real bucking match, with horse and rider each striving for mastery. The animal finally plunged between two trees literally tearing both rider and saddle off. In spite of the shock he sustained, [Jim] held onto the lariat, so the horse did not get away from him. Mr. Meyers tried to persuade [him] to let the whole thing go to the devil, but the boy had his Irish up and would not be dissuaded, so the whole performance was gone through again.

This time the rider had proved the master, and the outlaw was ridden to Chewelah that day, and from there to Spokane by way of Walker’s Prairie and Deep Creek. On the return trip, needless to say, that horse was broken before he reached Spokane again. Mr. Meyers never forgot that incident, and when we realized there was not a single settler to be met with between the Little Spokane and the Joe Morrrell ranch near Chewelah, except our stage station three miles east of Loon Lake, it was a strenuous job for anyone to undertake.

Part 2: Farming and ranching in the Colville Valley, freighting on the Colville Road.

. Let us remember that even at that early day, that part of the Colville Valley now known as Chewelah was on the map. That point was a natural stopping place for all travelers, where they could be sure of finding all accommodations necessary to make traveling as comfortable as could be expected. If some of the people of today [1928, during the agricultural depression of the 1920s that preceded the Great Depression of the 1930s] think it impossible to eke out any existence at the time of which I write, I wonder what they would have done had they come into the valley of the Colville when those old settlers did. For instance, John Inkster came to this valley in 1848, Thomas Brown in 1854, Guy Haines in 1859, Peter King in 1851. Many others came into the Colville Valley in the early ‘60s and resided here until their deaths. How did they make a living for themselves and their families? . They were all engaged in farming, producing an abundance of all farm crops, hay, oats, wheat potatoes and other vegetables . [as well as large bands of cattle, horses, sheep, and sometimes hogs].

. In those days every settler, as well as most of the Indians, raised a great number of horses. We never thought about feeding them -- except the ones we were using. The other ones ran on the open range, and were taken up when it was necessary to break some of them to work or ride. We were all handy with a lariat in fact it was seldom necessary to throw a second time at the animal you wanted. Every boy caught and broke his own riding horse. The animal was usually ridden bareback for the simple reason that we did not have a saddle to ride.

. On the James Monaghan ranch was a large band of cattle, purchased around Colville during the time he was engaged in the mercantile business there. They were driven to Chewelah every fall and fed there during the winter. It fell to the lot of my brothers and myself to round up these cattle during the fall of 1879. Usually all range cattle would come from the range into the valley as soon as the weather commenced getting stormy, so the work of gathering them began during the last of December. We started at the John Wynne farm, where the town of Colville is now, picking them up at the different farms on the way. .

Mr. Heller had a large band of cattle. He always fed them in an open timber lot outside of his field, where a branch of Heller Creek ran through his feedlot. It took considerable hard driving to cut the cattle out from his band. In running after a large steer the animal jumped across the creek, but my horse stopped at the edge of the water so suddenly that I went over his head, but fortunately landed on the opposite bank, pretty well shaken up, but no bones broken. . Joe LaPray was probably the largest cattle raiser in the county, grazing a great many of them on the breaks of the Spokane River during the entire year.

. There was always a good market for our livestock. The hogs were used for home consumption, every settler curing his own bacon, and all extra dressed pork found a ready market at the Oppenheimer mill. . The cattle were always in demand, not only in the home market, but buyers from outside points came here to purchase them.

The late D. M. [Daniel] Drumheller of Spokane never missed a year without coming to the Colville Valley and purchasing a large band of cattle. I also remember in the summer of 1881, a young man named Thomas McKenzie came here from Montana and purchased about 700 head of steers and dry cows, at an average price of $14 a head. He drove these cattle over the old Mullan Road through Idaho, and when swimming them across the Coeur d’Alene River, near the old mission, in trying to keep them together, he was drowned in the river at that point. The cattle were held on the range at that point until his sister came and took charge of them.

Again I remember in the summer of 1894, D. M. Drumheller and associates from Wyoming purchased all the cattle available throughout Stevens County. I sold several head to this outfit and helped to deliver them to the shipping point at Spokane. We arrived in Spokane with 1,200 head of cattle just a few days after the strike on the Northern Pacific Railroad. We were unable to ship them, as there was not a wheel turning on that road. We held them on the prairie east of Spokane for three weeks, finally shipping them over the Great Northern road to Miles City [Montana], this being the nearest point at which they could be unloaded and driven to the range where they were to be kept. The average price paid for these cattle was about $22.

There was always a ready market for all grain raised in the valley. The wheat was sold to the Oppenheimer Bros. And delivered to their flourmill on the Little Pend Oreille River. The oats were delivered at the garrison of Fort Colville, being purchased by whomever had the contract to furnish such supplies to the U.S. government at that point. The wheat usually sold for $1 per bushel and oats at 50 cents per bushel. Potatoes also brought 50 cents per bushel to the grower. Hay brought $12 per ton, delivered loose at the garrison, where about 400 tons were consumed. In those days every farmer absolutely owned his livestock and farm products. There were no mortgages on their farms or livestock or crops, so the prices received were their own to do with as they pleased.

The Oppenheimer gristmill was owned by the three Oppenheimer brothers, Samuel, Joseph, and Marcus. Here the greater part of the wheat grown in the Colville Valley was manufactured into flour and other mill products. .

There were two grades of flour made at the mill. Their best brand was known as the XXX and this brand was equal to any manufactured in any part of the Northwest. The flour was shipped as far south as Walla Walla, and also to all the mining camps operating on both sides of the international line on the north. On the mill farm there was produced a large band of hogs, numbering about 200 head. These hogs were fattened, dressed and cured into the finest hams, shoulders and bacon. .

The main road to Fort Colville passed by the mill. So I was a frequent visitor there carrying their mail to and from the post office, as well as any express matter that might be shipped to the mill. The kitchen latchstring was always out, a nice slice of well cooked ham to be found in the cupboard.

. Besides their regular farm operations, every farmer had one or more four-horse teams on the road to haul freight from Walla Walla during the slack season, between the time of planting and harvesting of their crops. The prices paid for such hauling during the summer months was about 3 cents per pound. This brought to the team owner a nice sum of money on the side. The cost of the trip was small, as there was plenty of bunch grass to be found at all points along the road. There was very little grain fed on these trips, and it usually took 12 days to make the round trip. Of course the trip was not pleasant during the early spring months, when the roads were soft. In fact, I have seen the road through the Chewelah valley so bad that it took four good horses to pull an empty wagon through it. During this time it was necessary to [use Cottonwood Road rather than the main road for this portion of the trip].

Freighting during the late fall was not very pleasant, as it was no unusual thing to get caught in a snowstorm. I remember one such instance, when John Morrell got caught in a storm. He unhitched his four-horse team and tied them to the wagon to wait until the storm had passed. Taking his blankets, he got under the wagon for shelter, but during the night the horses broke loose and drifted with the storm with their harness on them. One of the horses was a bay stallion owned by his father. Not being able to get any trace horses, he struck out on foot and reached Lyons Ferry on the Snake River. When spring opened up only one of the horses could be found, that was the stallion, and he had lost all his harness but the collar, which was still on his neck.

. [I always remember] the homestead of Antoine Gendron, a former employee of the Hudson’s Bay Company, [who came to] the post about 1846. He was married to a native [Indian] woman. They were the parents of a large family. . Besides the regular farm crops, there was also raised a large band of both cattle and horses. The latchstring was always out at the Antoine Gendron home, as it was with all the old pioneers. The honesty of the settlers was never questioned in those days. Let me illustrate a few incidents in proof of this. During the time James Monaghan was in the mercantile business at old Colville he carried charge accounts, as was the custom of the period. Some years after closing his business, in looking over his old accounts, he found some of his old customers still indebted to him. Apparently he had never sent them a statement of how their accounts stood. So, during the winter of 1884, he sent a memorandum of a few of those whose names appeared on his books, asking me to see what I could do about collecting them.

The first one I approached was Mr. Gendron, who not only acknowledged the indebtedness, but also offered to deliver two tons of oats at the Monaghan ranch at Chewelah in payment of the account. I also visited Michael La Fleur on the same mission. He took me out to his horse corral and told me to pick out any horse there and give him a receipted bill, which I did. I picked out a beautiful sorrel mare, and while I was in the house writing the receipt, his boys roped the animal and helped me take her to the Chewelah ranch.

Another thing that would also illustrate the honesty of the community of those days is worth telling here. During such times as Mr. Monaghan was away from his place of business, Antoine Paradis was placed in charge of the store. When the day’s business was over, Mr. Paradis pocketed the day’s receipts and returned to his home on the west side of the Colville Valley several miles distant, always making the trip on horseback, with no thought of ever meeting a holdup man.

Part 3: Memories of Indians

. That winter, ’78-’79, I was a pupil at the Catholic Sisters’ school at the Colville Mission, now Ward. This was an Indian school with about 250 children -- all Indians and half breeds except Miss Lizzie Labrie and my sister Mary Ann -- the only white girls, and myself -- the only white boy. . I will never forget one occasion when, with an Indian boy named Edward, I played hooky from school. We roamed over the hills east of the mission. When hunger overtook us I wanted to return to school. But hunger had no terror for the Indian boy. He made out a good dinner by eating the stalks of the wild sunflowers that grew luxuriantly all over the hills. [This was probably balsamroot, which the Indians of the Northwest used as a survival food.] However, when evening came, we returned to school and took our punishment, which was going to bed without any supper.

. [In the Colville Valley, Indians and whites] did plenty of hunting, fishing, horseracing, also foot racing. I do not think any people love a horserace more than the Indians did, and they would bet the last thing they had on their favorite horse. With them it was strictly a question of the best horse winning. There was no trickery of any kind. If a race was not satisfactory, they would insist it would be run over again until it was satisfactorily settled.

I will illustrate this to show their inherent honesty. The rider [myself] with his own horse was matched against an Indian horse and the rider in a three-mile race . Just north of the present magnesite plant [at Chewelah], for the first two miles it was nip and tuck between the two horses, but toward the finish the Indian boy left me so far behind that there was no question as to who had the best horse. But unfortunately the Indian boy did not ride through the gate. I took advantage of his mistake and rode through the gate, of course winning the race. However, it was decided that the other fellow had the best horse. So all bets were paid to the Indian without any kick from anyone.

While the Indians were horseracing every day during the week, it was only on Sunday afternoon that the settlers had time to indulge in the sport. On one occasion, after an afternoon of this sport, we boys had a bay stallion that had cleaned up everything that was pitted against him. We put him in the barn for the night, but on Monday morning he was nowhere to be found. After more than a month had elapsed, the horse was found in the barn, he had been returned as quietly as he had been taken away. It transpired that the Indians had taken him . [to] use for breeding purposes. He was returned in good condition, so no questions were ever asked. This was the only thing that ever occurred between us and the Indians that might be considered unfriendly. We used to employ the Indians during the haying and harvesting season, and most of them were good workers.

Whatever failings the Indians or half-breeds might have, dishonesty was not one of them. It often happened that a freighter would break down his wagon or have some other trouble that would compel him to leave his wagon and load of freight on the road for a considerable length of time, but I have never heard of a single instance where any article on the wagon was stolen. We never thought of locking a door. The latchstring was always out. Someone might come in, eat a lunch, but nothing was ever stolen.

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James Monaghan family, ca. 1893

Courtesy Northwest Museum of Arts & Culture

Oppenheimer Mill on the Little Pend Oreille River, ca. 1880


History of the Graham Family

The treatment and torture dealt out to these pious religious people, who held tenaciously to the principles of the Presbyterian faith, by the [2] church of England, under the false cloak of religion, would of itself fill a volume much larger than that contemplated in these pages, and reference is merely made to show the stern and unwavering character of a people who were driven from post to pillar, and suffered almost unendurable hardships and degradations, rather than depart from a principle which they believed to be the teachings of the Bible, as well as having the approval of their conscience. Thus, more than two centuries ago our ancestral parents left their beautiful homes in their native land, and looking for the last time on the green sloping swords of the Grampian Hills and bid farewell forever to the graves of their fathers and mothers, and left behind all that was near and dear to them, even as their own lovely Scotland, and took up their march for the Emerald Isle, in the vain hope that the persecutions and trials which had hitherto made life hideous, would cease and they would be free to exercise their faith[,] which had so long been the desire of their conscience. [3] But alas! for human expectations. Their sojourn is but for a while, until the broad and inviting land across the Atlantic bade them once more take up their line of march and plant their homes in the New World, where they would be free to worship God according to the dictates of their own conscience, unhindered by church or state. Among the many families who thus emigrated from Scotland to Ireland and later from Ireland to America, we might mention the following names: Forbesses, Stuarts, Hamiltons, Montgomerys, Alexanders, Grahams, Shaws, Moores, Lewises, Pattons, Mathews, Prestons, Baxtons, Lyles, Grigsbys, Crawfords, Comminses, Browns, Wallaces, Wilsons, Caruthers, Campbells, McClungs, McCues, McKees, McCowns, Lockridges, Boyds, Barclays, McDonals and Baileys, described as, “knights and gentlemen of Scotland, whose prosperity holds good to this day.” They were Irish Presbyterians, who, being of Scotch extraction, were called Scotch-Irish.

[4] These names are to-day familiar house-hold words of the names of our own land and are but a repetition, and of the same lineal descent of their noble ancestors, who, more than two centuries ago stood ever firm to the Magna Charta of Scottish rights, and rallied under their brave banners, emblazoned with the faith of their own creed, in the famous golden letters, “For Christ’s Crown and Covenant,” they waited undaunted, the tyranny of their foes.

As we have said, their sojourn in Ireland was but temporary, as to a large proportion of those who emigrated there. Of course, many hindered by poverty and other causes no doubt, made that their permanent home.

The relief which they sought, they found but temporary in their new found homes in Ireland. Under the rule of tyrant kings, their suffering and punishment was endurable only for its contrasts with their former suffering. Tithes and taxes demanded from their wrecked estates to support a church, not of their own choice restrained [5] from speaking their own opinions living in a strange land dwelling among enemies of their faith, all combined to make them an unhappy and restless people. Longing for new homes, the silent whispers came across the ocean that the Mayflower, years before had landed others, persecuted like themselves, safely on the other side of the blue waters. This gave them hope. “For thou, O, God, hast proved us, and thou hast tried us as silver is tried thou broughtest us into the net thou layest afflictions upon our loins thou hast caused men to ride over our heads we went through fire and through water but though broughtest us out into a wealth place.” Gathering together what little worldly goods they possessed, which was very meagre, and often nothing, save their Bible. They embarked for the New World, landing upon the banks of the Deleware, [sic] and many rested for a season in the land of Pennsylvania.

William Penn, having been formerly a subject of the King of England, and witnessed the perse- [6] cution of his own church (though he himself was a favorite of King James) it was but natural that these people should seek out in the New World, those that had been persecuted for conscience sake in the old world.

Among those who sought fresh relief and new homes amid the untrodden forests of America, few stood higher or occupied positions more exalted than the Grahams. During that bloody, treacherous, and ever memorable struggle in England, Ireland and Scotland, in which King James was dethroned, and William, Price of Orange, a presbyterian, became his successor — a time when no man could remain neutral, but, all must declare, either for the time honored established church of England the papistry of King James or for that faith which they believed to be taught in Holy Writ. According to the dictates of their own conscience, the Grahams occupied prominent positions on either side.

One Richard Graham, known as Viscount Preston, held the position of Secretary of State of [7] Scotland, under King James, about the year 1685 and history tells us that he was one [of] the privy council, and most trusty advisers of the king that his plans and recommendations were often adhered to, rather than those of the king himself. As a leader of the House of Commons, he counseled King James to reassemble the Houses of Parliament, in order to secure a peaceful settlement of differences between church and state. He was also made Lord Lieutenant for both the counties of Cumberland and Westmoreland, a position very rare and remarkable for one man to occupy.

During the absence of King James from the throne, who, on account of his fear of opposers, had fled to Salisbury, Richard Graham and four associates were appointed a committee, known as the Council of Five, to transact the business of the Throne until such time as might be deemed expedient for the king to return.

The positions of high honor and trust, held and occupied by this one man were many, and to rehearse [8] them all in detail, would require more space than it is our purpose here to consume in this brief sketch suffice it to say that he seems to have been a leader of his party in both civic and military affairs a minister at the courts of foreign countries honored, trusted and adhered to, and we might add, obeyed by kings feared and esteemed by the House of Commons, and held in the highest respect by the common people. While he was true and devoted to King James, in the sense of patriotism, it does not appear that he was a persecutor of those who differed from the king’s religious views.

James Graham, of Claverhouse, viscount of Dundee, was also a noted character in that eventful struggle, and while his persecution of those who differed from the religious persuasions of King James, must ever be deplored, we take consolation in the fact that he but carried out the dictates and decrees of his Master. That his fidelity to the king was ever true through life, and even in the hour of death, is fully substantiated [9] in his last utterance, after having spent an eventful life in the king’s cause.

After King James had vacated the throne, and William and Mary had been triumphantly crowned, and the armies of James abandoned and scattered, General Graham, with his indomitable will and ever-to-be admired energy, hoping against hope, collected together such as he could of the remaining fragmentary army of his escaped master and repaired to the Highlands of Scotland, where he succeeded in interesting the Scottish Chiefs of those Highland Clans, in behalf of the cause of the late king. The remoteness of these semi-barbarians from the active scene of war, coupled with their disinclination to inform themselves of the nature of the conflict, soon led them through the fluency of Graham’s speech to espouse his cause. Having sought and obtained the sympathy of all the principal chiefs of the various clans, he assembled them together and a council was held to decide the mode of warfare. The detached fragmentary of the army whom [10] Graham hitherto commanded, chagrined with former defeats, protested against a battle with those who espoused the cause of King William. While the leaders of the Highland Clans urged immediate assault, saying their men were ready and eager for the fray.

General Graham was influenced by the counsel of the Highlanders, assuring them that he would lead them to victory that he himself would march in front of his army to this, his subordinate officers objected, saying, he was too valuable a leader to expose his person in front of the battle, and urged him to remain in the rear and dictate the movements of his army in the on-coming conflict. To this Graham replied, “your people are accustomed to seeing their leader in the van of battle, and there I shall be seen this day, but after the decision of this day, I shall be more careful of my person and not expose myself in action as heretofore has been my custom.” After that statement, his army was commanded to move forward, himself being in the lead. [11]

Soon the foe was met and the battle of Killikrankie was fought. Early in the engagement Graham was shot, having raised his hand above his head and standing erect in his stirrups, giving command, his shield or armour raised above his waistband, exposing his person, when the ball took effect, he fell from his horse and one of his subordinate officers coming up to him, inquired if his injuries were fatal, Graham answered by saying, “How goes the cause of the king?” The attendant answered, “the cause of the king is well how is your lordship?” Graham replied, “it matters not for me, so the cause of the king is safe.” These were his last words. Though dying on the field, his army won a great victory and the battle of Killikrankie has passed into history, as one of the most memorable events of that time. History hands down to us other names of the Grahams, who were more or less noted in their day and time, of which we might mention, Malcolm Graham, who is last, but by no means least, stood high in society and was [12] bound with a golden chain by King James the II to Ellen Douglass, the girl he loved so well dishonoring thus thy loyal name.

Fetters and warden for the Greame (Graham)
His chain of gold the king unstrung
The links o’er Malcolm’s neck he flung,
Then gently drew the glittering band,
And laid the clasp on Ellen’s hand.

SCOTT’S LADY OF THE LAKE.From the above selection it will be noticed that the name is spelled Greame. Whether the author drew upon his poetical license for this misnomer or whether the name was sometimes so spelled by the Scotts, we are unable to determine.

In the early settlement of this country, when people paid but little attention to the orthography of names — the name was often spelled Grimes. There seems, however, to have been no authority whatever for this contortion of the name.

The only excuse that might be offered for this misapplication of the name is that the names of the early settlers were scarcely, if ever, seen in print and but seldom in writing, but were handed [13] orally from one to another, thus giving plenty of opportunity for misunderstandings. We can recall many names, which in our youth were pronounced differently from what they now are. To illustrate, the name Stevenson was called “Stinson” the name Withrow was called “Watherow” Stodghill was called “Stargeon” and so on. We even find in this day a few of the old-styled fathers and mothers who do not like to discontinue the old-fashioned way of expressing these names.

The Graham name in all English history and in the history of our country, as well as in all the legal writings pertaining to the family, from the earliest settlement in America down to the present time, is spelled as we now have it — Graham.

The people of Scotland of the same family tree were known as clans and these clans seem to have been bound together by very strong and endearing ties.

Such were the adhesion of these family clans that they kept themselves almost entirely aloof [14] from other clans marriage and intermarriage by members of one clan to another was scarcely admissible. If a member of one clan provoked or insulted a member of another clan, the insult was resented by the clan whose member had been insulted thus we find arose many of the clan feuds, with which Scottish history so much abounds.

Each clan had its official head chief or leader, whose duty it was to dictate to his people such a course as seemed to him most wise and discreet or that happened to please the whims of his own fancies. In military affairs this leader or chief was expected to occupy the most dangerous positions and to perform the most daring of the exploits in the heat of battle. He must either win a victory, in which he performed some noble part, or die in defeat.

The Graham clan was a very large and influential one, and, perhaps, at the time of its greatest power, had for its official head James Graham, the Earl of Montrose, who laid down his life for love to his king.

[15] It is claimed in Scottish history that the Graham family dates back for a thousand years, and has been conspicuous in the annal of their country, “from hovel to the palace, in arts, in eloquence and in song”. “It was a daring man by the name of Graham that first broke through the walls of Agricola which the Roman general had built between the firths of the Clyde and Forth to keep off the incursions of the Northern Britons, and the ruins of which, still visible, are called to this day the ruins of Graham’s Dyke”.

From Scotland to Virginia

The first immigration of the Grahams to this country, of which we have any account, occurred about the year 1720 to 1730, the exact date of which cannot now be known.

It is, however, a matter of history that one Michael Graham settled in Paxtong Township, Lancaster County, Pennsylvania, about the date referred to and that he was a direct descendant of the Earl of Montrose, who was beheaded. The descendants of Michael Graham afterwards settled in the Valley of Virginia and became noted [16] for their scholarly attainments, as well as their religious zeal.

Of these, however, we may speak further on. It is known that at or near the same period of the coming of Michael to this country other members of the same family, kith and kin, also settled in this country, among whom were John Graham (the writer’s great grandfather), who settled for a time, it is believed, in Pennsylvania and later moved to the Great Calf Pasture River in Augusta county, Virginia. It is to be regretted that we cannot give the exact date of the settlement on the Calf Pasture River, but conclude that not earlier than the year 1740, nor later than 1745.

We find that he purchased a tract of six hundred and ninety-six acres of land in the year 1746, from John Lewis and James Patton. It will be remembered that John Lewis was the first settler in Augusta county, or rather in the territory which afterwards became Augusta, having planted his home in the then remote wilderness in the [17] year 1732, at Belle Fontaine Springs near Staunton. He was the father of General Andrew Lewis who commanded in the famous battle of Point Pleasant in 1774. John Graham (whom we will call senior) reared a family of four sons and five daughters on the banks of the Calf Pasture and died there about the year 1771, born about the year 1700. His oldest son’s name was Lanty (Lancelot). The names of the other three were John, James and Robert. His daughters’ names were Jane, Elizabeth, Anne, Rebecca and Florence, who was the writer’s grandmother on his mother’s side, she having married James Graham (her cousin).


Assista o vídeo: Graham Thomas Rose David Austin


Comentários:

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  2. Kinny

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